I take this from the book Thomas Paine and the Promise of America by Harvey J. Kaye. The controversy did lead Paine to reconsider his commitment to single-chamber legislatures, especially when the antibank forces prevailed in the Pennsylvania Assembly and repealed the bank's charter. Paine saw it as sad evidence of disunity and the dangerous rise of political parties and factions, which, he worried, might lead to the triumph of a single faction and even possibly to one-party rule and dictatorship. Holding to the republican ideal that politics need not-and should not-degenerate into parties and factions, Paine now leaned in favor of bicameralism as a means of creating political balance and curbing such developments. To his eventual satisfaction however, the pro-bank forces won the Pennsylvania elections of 1786 and restored the charter the following spring. I can't help but see his point on political parties. Unfortunately, we are in the midsts of one-party and one-faction rule nationally in America. This has happened due to many factors. I cite the use of fear, and the failure of checks and balances, which lead to the situation we are now in. The reason I'm not in either of the two major parties ( I left the Democratic Party for the WFP this year ) is because of the troubling signs I see in both. With the Democratic Party there is a divide between the activists and the status quo, or what I call the establishment. You have people who want to fight for change and who really want to focus on issues such as poverty, education, healthcare, the economy, and getting out of Iraq. The status quo is basically conservative in the thinking that they are fearful of change. The Republican Party itself is also suffering from fissures. Which I actually think is a good thing for them. The neoconservatives and radical evangelicals have taken this party in this wrong direction, and the party has bent totally rightward. Long gone are the days of the progressive Republicans of Teddy Roosevelt and Fiorello Laguardia. Lincoln's party would be totally unrecognizable to him. Within the party you also still have the corpratist element which I despise just as badly. It is the corporate appeasement ( a difference from corporate friendly ) of those in both parties which have done the most long-term damage. So both parties have major problems which is why it is hard for me to tow a specific party line which many feel they have to do. From now on I basically look at what the candidate will do and base my support on that. I look at where they stand on twenty or so issues and go from there. I'll support candidates that are Democrats, Republicans, or any party now and I hope to see a new "old" Republican reemerge in that party. I also think the moderates in the Republican Party need to be encouraged and supported by people in that party so that they will get stronger. It is not only the Democrats that need to be taken over to become more progressive. The Republican Party must be taken back as well. I'll also say that it's not only political parties that need reform it's corporations. Corporate abuse of workers, consumers, and the environment must be placed in check once again. The corporations have broken free from the days of the "trust busters". You can either brake them up or increase government to regulate the companies. I don't know who in either party will finally take on this fight seriously again, but whoever does I'll be there.