What started from 400 or so citizens in 1949 grew under "2 hands 1 mounth" to over 1 Billion in the early 1970's near the time of the rise of Deng's policies and the end of violence during the 10 years by Mao, his army and Mao's hated Gang of 4 for roads bridges destruction during the falsely named cultural revolution which ended with the death of Mao and the capture, trial and imprisonment of Chinas enemies the Gang of Four Mao's allies.
The "2 Hands 1 Mouth led to huge increases housing costs, transportation costs. Students now have to live 8 to a room in some universities because of the failed population policies of the central committee.