The New Idealism
By Michael Dargaville
CONTENTS

PREFACE 7

INTRODUCTION 19

SECTION 1:

WHAT IS THE NEW IDEALISM?
The climate of how the New Idealism evolved 25
The new physics 30
The new physics as a form of philosophical idealism 37
Some other theories of physics which posit idealism 45
Other regions of the New Idealism: the New Age 53
Buddhism 60
Hinduism and Indian Philosophy 65
Chinese Philosophy 69
The Occult and Esoteric Aspect of the New Age 75

SECTION 2

JUSTIFYING THE NEW IDEALISM:
What is the relevance of the New Idealism? 81
The rise of materialsim 81
The passage to the solar age 85
Comparisons of the New Idealism and materialism 88
Health, Psychology and the New Idealism 92
The New Idealism and Economics 100
An historical perspective of idealism and its alternative 105
The New Idealism, Medicine and Applied Philosophy 113
5

The New Idealism

SECTION 3

THREE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF THE NEW IDEALISM:

Introduction 130

The New Idealism in literature and aesthetics 131

The debate within naturalism and the impact of the New Idealism
151
Applied Philosophy and the New Idealism 158
Superstring Theory and Conclusion 160
Integral meditation 170
6

The New Idealism
PREFACE
T
T
his book gives a complete outline of the implications of the
New Age movement and the science behind it. It fully
explains all the latest details in quantum physics as well as the
latest developments in spirituality. It is simply explained for the
average reader and can be grasped by high school students as
well. If there is a problem with certain technical terms the reader
should consult a dictionary or a dictionary of philosophy.
Nevertheless all terms are fully explained.
The basis of the New Age movement is a spiritual
awakening, similar to that of the 1960s – yet only this time it is
far more radical. And it also has its own media fighting the forces
of capitalism.
The New Age movement is very broad-based but does
involve certain fundamental principles.
Firstly, many at the front ranks of the New Age movement
believe that the Christ, or Lord Maitreya as he is known, has
returned and is living in London .
It is said that Lord Maitreya is committed to worldwide
socialism and wants to form a world government based on love,
socialism and sharing of all the world’s resources. For those
readers who are already puzzled by this preface, a few facts will
be given. The New Age joins many movements together into one
union. Firstly, in India a man called Sri Satha Sai Baba is world
famous for his many so-called miracles.
Sai Baba has a following of more than 100 million people
throughout the planet. He is world famous for producing objects
7

The New Idealism
out of thin air, bi-locating (being in two places at the same time)
and teleporting (moving from one place to another through the
speed of light).
Sai Baba has had many scientists come to test his powers but
in the New Age he is simply known at the Cosmic Christ, or
Cosmic Avatar.
Lord Maitreya in London is known as a planetary Avatar – or
planetary Christ – that is, he has evolved from this planet. Under
Lord Maitreya are more than 300 beings called Ascended
Masters. These beings are not human but had once been human.
They are part of what is called the Earth’s Spiritual Hierarchy.
The spiritual headquarters of Planet Earth is in China in a
place known as Shamballa somewhere in the Gobi Desert and this
is where the Planetary Logos is located. The name of the
Planetary Logos is currently a secret although many had claimed
Lord Buddha to have taken this role but this is not true. The new
Planetary Logos has taken over the role from another magnificent
being called Sanat Kumara.
This may seem extraordinary to many readers, but many in
the New Age movement firmly believe all of this.
Another major belief that New Age people have is the
rejection of Darwinian theory. New Age followers believe that
humans came from other planets and star systems.
The first humans that came to this planet was 2 million years
ago. They came from another human planet called Sirius. They
came here by advanced spaceships that can teleport through the
speed of light. These spaceships use bio-crystal energetic
computers with telepathic captains and are about three times the
size of a Jumbo 747 yet also have huge motherships hundreds of
kilometres long.
8

The New Idealism
This first Earth civilization was called Hybornea and lasted
from 2 million BC until 1 million BC yet was destroyed by other
non-human aliens called Reptoids about 1 million years ago in a
major war. Humans again came back 900,000 years ago and
formed a civilization called Lemuria. Humans during this
civilization lived for 5000 years on average. Atlantis, which was a
civilization within Lemuria, is well-known even in the writings of
Plato.
Some time about 15000BC a huge nuclear war destroyed this
civilization and then earth was repopulated by galactic humans
with the agreement of the earth’s spiritual hierarchy. During this
time humans were genetically mutated because its protective
biosphere had been destroyed.
Reptoids first came to Earth more than 20 million years ago,
much earlier than humans, although the Spiritual Hierarchy
supports Humans not Reptoids. Reptoids can shapeshift into
human form and are virtually immortal. However, in human form
on this planet they are harmless. In their original form they look
like lizards that can stand erect or gargoyles.
Thus, Christ, Buddha and Krishna (the founders of three
major Earth religions) are in fact all from the same source – the
planet’s spiritual hierarchy or Shamballa in China .
From this it can be clearly seen that Lord Maitreya in
London (the returned Christ) and the unnamed Planetary Logos in
Shamballa in China, are now in charge of the planet. Sai Baba in
India has come from the centre of the galaxy as a Christed ET to
especially help for the dawning of the New Age. And remember
that there are 300 Ascended Masters helping the Planetary Logos
and Lord Maitreya (and Sai Baba in India).
9

The New Idealism
Now, readers may be asking with all of these powerful beings on
the planet, why is there so much strife and wars.
The main reason had been that these nonhuman aliens called
Reptoids mentioned earlier had a moon base that had machines
that had the ability to change the way humans and countries can
think. These Reptoid aliens had used psychotronic weapons and
technology on this planet for hundreds of years to control us or
destroy us. This base was destroyed at the beginning of the 21st
Century by Galactic Federation human aliens who have come
here to save this planet and support us. They will be importantly
fully outlined later in this preface.
This psychotronic technology is already being widely used
by the United States who gained this technology from the little
grey aliens that they had a covert deal with for the past 60 years.
The grey aliens and the USA worked together on many projects.
Hollywood’s most famous film, ET, is about that relationship
called the Plato Pact.
This
psychotronic technology was widely used during the Cold War.
The Russians developed the technology to great sophistication.
One machine which is used widely is called the neurophone.
The neurophone has been used widely by governments especially
the CIA to change the way people think. It has the ability to
change electro-magnetic frequencies into sound. The H.A.A.R.P
base in Alaska is like a huge neurophone.
Capitalist governments have used this weaponry on socialists
widely while the American government politically destabilised
10

The New Idealism
many governments because of its alien agenda since the Second
World War
Obviously there are angels in human bodies on Planet Earth
but there is also Evil Angels (basically the Reptoid aliens), who
are part of what is called the Luciferic Rebellion, which has come
from another galaxy. This involves the support of Lucifer himself
for these evil Reptoids who lived on the moon and used
psychotronic technology on the entire planet for hundreds of
years. This is the Devil’s weaponry. Do you understand? And all
governments have used it at some time.
Most top leaders in the New Age believe that our entire
galaxy has humans on other planets and star systems. Many
millions of New Age followers believe that humans evolved in a
Darwinian fashion 6-7 million years ago on the star system Vega.
Humans were developed from a primate on that star system by
powerful creator forces. They eventually developed to a very high
level with extremely high technology. About 5 million years ago
a Galactic Federation (of humans) was formed as these early
galactic humans space traveled and set up colonies all over our
galaxy. They came to earth via the Sirians 2 million years ago as
part of this colonization. This true Earth history was fully outlined
in the now world famous New Age 1994 classic book called YOU
ARE BECOMING A GALACTIC HUMAN by the American
writer Sheldon Nidle.
Thousands of Galactic Federation human planets have been
attacked by Reptoid aliens in a similar way to our planet. The
Galactic Federation presently has humans from other planets on
our Planet Earth (Gaia) at present to help fight what is happening.
Some have come in spaceships, others have incarnated while
11

The New Idealism
others have come as “walk-ins” (they exchange their soul with a
human).
Galactic Humans from the Galactic Federation live according
to how spiritually advanced they are. For example, Arcturians can
live for 30,000 years and are virtually immortal and look oriental.
Sirians live for 5000 years and look European. There are many
galactic human planets in our galaxy only slightly more advanced
than ours with life spans of 300-500 years. Humans from Hydra
live for 500 years, Plaideans for 700 years. We can have sex with
some of them and reproduce and can in fact live on some of their
planets which use oxygen for their atmospheres.
The way the Galactic Federation human aliens managed to
fight the Reptoid aliens was to develop to a high spiritual level.
Large numbers of Arcturians are Ascended Masters and all
humans in the Galaxy have the potential to become an Ascended
Masters.
The Galactic Federation wants a socialist world government
led by China based on peace and love. It wants the United States
to give up its world power and for the rest of the world to take
their positions in forming a world government.
Already, China is the military power of the world because
the Galactic Federation human aliens can stop any American
(Russian) nuclear missile. China has the biggest army in the
world and could now easily beat America in a land war. Only
land wars are reality now, such as Iraq and Afghanistan. Yet the
world lives under the delusion of American control because no
formal alien announcement has been made. The Galactic
Federation now surround our planet in spaceships demanding an
announcement.
12

The New Idealism
Nevertheless the Chinese Government clearly knows it is now the
leader of the world and are waiting for the right time although the
Galactic Federation have said the Indian Government in New
Delhi may be the first government to make a formal
announcement of the truth. The Galactic Federation want to see
the new world government based in Sichuan province in China
because a new world government must be in China because it is
the biggest and most important country but it must be close to
India, which is now the second most important government and
country. So Sichuan is perfect, because it is in China but close to
India. So the new world capital would be located south of
Chengdu, which is the centre of Asia. And Asia now is King and
runs the world, while the West is its new dutiful Queen.
The Galactic Federation has a great deal of very advanced
technology to give the planet but it will not do this until a world
government is formed. It is especially worried by the actions of
the United States Government. The Leader of the Galactic
Federation is Archangel Michael and the leader of the Reptoid
aliens is Archangel Lucifer. Thus, our Galaxy and this planet as
well, has been involved in a massive spiritual war between two
towering archangels and their various alien races who support
them. DO YOU UNDERSTAND? Their power and the way
aliens space travel is fully outlined in this book using a new
theory of physics called super energy, which is energy faster than
light. Both energy and super energy are produced by THOUGHT.
Thus, the title of this book, THE NEW IDEALISM. In
philosophy idealism is the notion that Thought creates reality, all
reality, everything. And Love/Fear creates thought.
The United States is a one-party capitalist state with power
vested in multi-national and transnational corporations. Both the
13

The New Idealism
Democratic and Republican parties are capitalist parties. Most of
the corporations in America are owned by the Illuminati. One per cent of
Americans own everything. Aliens have said they were
behind the September 11 World Trade Centre tragedy in New
York which started the Iraq and Afghan wars. They did this
because there is money in war. However, they now
really have no power because both China and India could destroy
them at the wink of an eye and the Galactic Federation aliens are offering
all countries individual military protection. We live in an entire new geo-
political reality.
Nevertheless these ruthless and selfish families have killed
millions of innocent children and tens of millions of adults
because of the huge loan repayments they make poor countries in
Africa and elsewhere pay back because of the loans they make
through the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
(IMF). The families control these world institutions through the
American Federal Reserve which is partly a private corporation.
However, the big and powerful new superpowers, China and
India , are now clearly stopping their power.
When the fall of the Soviet Union happened, US power grew
hugely without the support of the world and a global hegemony
began on a scale the modern world had never seen before. The
many wars the USA started since the fall of the Soviet Union,
such as in Belgrade, created a new precedent in the world where
the USA was acting in a totalitarian manner. China, India, Russia
and Brazil all protested relentlessly.
14

The New Idealism
The United States is now truly finished as a world power and
has clearly demonstrated to the world its fascist killer instinct
while it thought it had control. Yet the Galactic Federation has
now made the world safe from America because China now rules
completely. Communism has won and the Chinese Communist
Party is the ruler of the world. Once the alien announcement is
made, a new world history will truly be made. This is now just a
matter of time. 2012 had been hoped for the year of the
announcement yet this now is not certain. 2012 is the magical
time into a new time zone, where the universe itself will start to
implode. Our universe is right in the middle of a huge breath. It is
a truly momentous time.
It is now clear that the Soviet Union was certainly a victim of
the psychotronic technology that the reptoid aliens on the moon
had been using on the planet with the support of the Devil
Lucifer.
These evil alien Reptoids and the Devil himself have been
controlling the United States since the fall of the Soviet Union .
The Spiritual Hierarchy of this planet has allowed this to happen
to show the planet that capitalism is dangerous and does not
work.
Both the Spiritual Hierarchy and the Galactic Federation
want to see a genuine world government on Planet Earth. The
government would be based on libertarian socialism where
socialized housing, farming land, industry and other
infrastructures would be a massive genuine alternative to the
current multi-trillionaire dominated Illuminati billionaire families
that own the planet. Small business could then genuinely flourish
to boost an overall socialist economy. We cannot join the Galactic
Federation until there is a world government and we need the
Galactic Federation to stop these negative Reptoid aliens. So the
world must pull together, stop their stupidity, form a world government
and then get admitted to the Galactic Federation.
15

The New Idealism
The Galactic Federation want to see the use of the hydrogen
engine widely to stop the use of all fossil fuel and nuclear energy.
All cars could be run from hydrogen fuel either in the form of
electric cars supported by local hydrogen engine power grids or
hydrogen engine cars themselves. Hydrogen fuel and engines is
the future, aliens have stressed.
Some Reptoid aliens are in fact members of the Galactic
Federation and are not all bad and they follow Archangel
Michael.
The so-called capitalist developed countries would be
completely disarmed. The World Bank and the International
Monetary Fund would cease their operations immediately. These
organizations have imposed capitalist measures on the Third
World via the Illuminati. Obviously from this China has to take
its responsibility in leading the world towards a world
government based on socialism, peace and love.
While the United States capitalist media rallied about how
socialist states were one party, they never mentioned the fact that
the US is a one-party capitalist state. The United States has a
tradition of being a one-party capitalist state. Both the Republican
and Democratic parties represent big business capitalism and the
Illuminati. Their policies only vary on issues that concern
capitalism.
This has been given as the reason why so many Americans
do not bother to vote and has led to the creation of a power elite
in that country that does not present the will of the people. Only
50 per cent of people bother to vote in America. Presidents get
15-20 per cent of the vote so are not the real leaders.
It is now fairly clear that AIDS and many other diseases have
been created by scientists in the USA as part of a biological
16

The New Idealism
weapons program to kill off vast legions of Earth’s population.
However, the Galactic Federation has now said they can and will
intervene. This preface has been written to outline what is
happening and this writer has had alien contact for the past 13
years where aliens have demonstrated huge powers including
amazing powers of telepathy and psychic abilities that would
make you truly question everything you do.
Thus, please read this following book which is kind of a New
Age handbook for humanity. Have faith that big change will
happen, that things will improve but it is ultimately up to us, to
make that change. This is our planet and the aliens are here to
protect us and support us and to completely respect our
sovereignty. The Galactic Federation has saved this planet from
destruction and now wants the people of this planet to join
together in a world government and to make this world a pristine
beautiful planet full of joy and hope, equality for all. They have
new technologies to give including a machine that can keep
people alive for 1000 years. Can you imagine?
17

The New Idealism

The New Idealism
INTRODUCTION
T
T
his work will examine what I have termed “The New
Idealism”. It is timely that this treatise is being written at
the beginning of the new millennium because the concept
of the New Idealism is revolutionary from a philosophical, and
more specifically, metaphysical, point of view. The 20th century
has been a century dictated by the concept of philosophical
materialism. From academic philosophy to the far reaches of
Readers Digest culture under advanced western capitalism, the
notion of materialism has been rampant. In academic philosophy,
materialism has ruled supreme. All the major philosophical
movements of this century starting with Logical Atomism,
Logical Positivism, agnostic existentialism, phenomenology,
linguistic or ordinary language philosophy, structuralism,
post-structuralism, postmodernism, Feminism and analytical
philosophy in general, and this would also include the notion of
anti-realism, has been against the philosophical metaphysical
concept of Idealism or that reality as we know it, is produced by
thought, a mind, Consciousness, a mental construct, Spirit.
When I use the term, “the new idealism” I am using the term
in two senses. Firstly, the developments in science and the New
Physics in general has radically reintroduced the concept of
philosophical Idealism. By this I mean that the once completely
banished concept of philosophical Idealism has been reintroduced
and it is a New Idealism, or rather, a new set of philosophies that
posit Idealism. Secondly, the New Idealism, when it is taken to its
fullest extent, is actually different from the many brands of
philosophical Idealism prior to the 19th century. The most famous
19

The New Idealism
brand of Idealism, of course, had been Hegel’s Absolute Idealism,
which says that all matter in the Universe is Spirit, or mental in
construct.
Generally, the notion of philosophical Idealism says that
reality is not fundamentally material, but mental. The word grew
out of Idea-ism, strictly speaking. In philosophy the great debate
in metaphysics had been between Idealism and materialism, until
the 20th century virtually abandoned the concept of philosophical
Idealism. This, however, was contained strictly within academic
philosophy, which was usually seen as being at the cutting edge
of philosophical research.
Philosophical materialism, and the rise of philosophical
materialism has an extremely complex historical background
which had been strongly vocal throughout the past four centuries.
The Logical Positivists in the 20th century appealed to science to
dismiss metaphysics while the analytic philosophical tradition
fully emerged with the dawning of that philosophical system.
These ideas represented a range of ideas characteristic of the
Vienna Circle in Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. They were
strongly influenced by empirical tradition, and especially the
work of David Hume. According to the famous verification
principle, the meaning of a proposition consists in the methods of
its verification. This principle is the basis of Logical Positivism’s
attack of theology and metaphysics because these notions were
considered unverifiable.
However, at the heart of the New Idealism, science is once
again used, but this time it is used to dismiss philosophical
materialism. Right across the scientific spectrum there has been a
radical swing towards philosophical issues of spirituality and
Idealism. And at the heart of this scientific revolution is the major
20

The New Idealism
developments in physics, which is now called the New Physics.
This book will examine how the New Physics radically
reintroduces the concept of philosophical Idealism. There are now
many physicists, many of whom are at the front ranks of their
profession, who have in common a position which rejects
philosophical materialism and reintroduces the concept of
spirituality in matter. This is very radical stuff, indeed, and is a
complete philosophical revolution. This is because, as discussed
earlier, all of the major philosophies of the 20th century were
forms of philosophical materialism.
The first section of this book will be called, “What is the New
Idealism”. This section will especially concentrate on the New
Physics, and how the New Physics reintroduces the metaphysical
concept of Idealism, and that in fact developments in physics has
made redundant the notion that matter is in any way a substance
which is non-mental. This chapter will concentrate on the work of
many physicists including Fritjof Capra, David Bohm, Geoffrey
Chew, Paul Davies, David Clark, Willis Harman, John Wheeler
and Brenda Dunn. It will also concentrate on some of the works
of other thinkers who are not professional physicists by write
extensively about physics. This will be very much a core section
and will provide the reader to some of the exciting new
developments in this region of science. Various comparisons will
also be used to show how the New Physics is similar and has deep
sympathies with many branches of Eastern philosophy and will
make a connection with what is termed the New Age movement,
an often highly criticised philosophical position that has gained a
great deal of respect from independent thinkers. The thinkers used
here will include the work of David Ash and Peter Hewitt, two
British physicists who have put forward the theory of
21

The New Idealism
transubstantiation, which basically concurs with the New Physics
in saying that Consciousness produces matter. However, the
theory goes further and says that Consciousness is faster that the
speed of light which creates a new form of energy called super
energy. This is like the final nail in the coffin for materialism and
is the cream on the cake of the New Physics.
In this section I will make an effort to combine all of these
major physical systems to give a coherent overview. The section
will outline Eastern philosophical systems.
Other areas of the New Idealism that will be touched upon in
the next section are the other regions of the sciences that are also
challenging the concept of philosophical materialism, especially
biology. This will essentially concentrate on the work of Rupert
Sheldrake and other biologists. It will also concentrate on the
scientific discoveries in psychology. This will concentrate on the
work of thinkers such as Carl Simonton, Ken Wilber, Gregory
Bateson plus many other new writers, especially those who work
in the medical sciences.
This next section will be called, “Justifying the New
Idealism”. This section will clearly evaluate some of the
extremely radical claims that the New Idealism makes and the
philosophical revolutionary aspects of it. This will carefully
examine the notion of what arguments philosophical materialism
has against Idealism, and the concept of Idealism. Once again this
will concentrate on the radical development of the New Physics.
This obviously has to be the best way to justify the concept of the
New Idealism but will take an extremely objective outlook at
some of the major arguments that materialists use.
The third section will examine the epistemology of the New
Idealism. This will look at some of the more common
22

The New Idealism
epistemologies from the 20th century such as Logical Positivism,
existentialism, structuralism and post modernism to some of the
more rationalistic epistemologies advocated by profound
philosophers such as Noam Chomsky, which as a great deal more
in common with the New Idealism.
Throughout, a major effort will be made to be as explicit and
precise as possible, and to clearly explain what is being stated
here. What is being said here is that a straightforward approach
will be adopted in the use of my philosophical language to be as
clear as possible, and to avoid philosophical jargon, a practice
that many philosophers use unsuccessfully because it usually
frightens the reader away.
Each section will be broken down into further sub-sections
with headings to further help the reader gain exactly what I am
saying here, and to give a clearly focused explanation on what is
happening. This is very much an effort, once again, of clearly
outlining for the reader what is happening, especially
thematically. This will, I believe, give a firm structure for the
overall book.
Because this is very much a new area of philosophy and an
area that I believe is not only revolutionary but of vital
importance, it is most important for the reader to clearly
understand what is being stated. The New Idealism is completely
revolutionary in that it will affect all fields of endeavour – from
political life, economics, medicine, psychiatry, biology and many
other areas of society.
There is now a strong worldwide movement that is redirecting
the nature of human thought, although western philosophy right
in the lead-up into the new millennium has been concentrating on
postmodernism and anti-realism. However, the New Idealism has
23

The New Idealism
profoundly opened another door for philosophy and makes it a
highly interesting time for the pursuit of a craft that is now of
vital importance.
The section on super energy is very important because it fully
explains how alien spaceships come to planet earth. As outlined
in the preface of this book, the Galactic Federation aliens are now
surrounding this planet. They are our galactic human brothers and
sisters from other star nations and they travel through the speed of
light in energy called super energy or plasma energy. Both super
energy and energy are manifestations of consciousness – which is
a form of idealism. This book fully outlines this further on. Their
spaceships use computers to register super energy and then
telepathic captains send a message to a bio-crystal “energetic”
computer on the ship that gives the messages into super energy at
“the speed of thought”. And this is how the spaceships travel the
vast distances they do. So this book fully explains alien space
travel simply for the average reader.
24

The New Idealism
CHAPTER 1:
WHAT IS THE NEW IDEALISM

The climate of how the new idealism evolved
T
T
he major philosophical system that ruled the hearts and
minds of men for the past four centuries is what is termed
philosophical materialism. This historical concept cannot be
overstressed here, at the beginning of this treatise. Right up to the
end of the 20th century the concept of philosophical materialism is
taught throughout most western universities. Philosophical
materialism is also throughout virtually all societies on Earth,
embedded into our medicine, economics, virtually all our sciences
and in every structure of thought.
Philosophical materialism grew from the Scientific
Revolution of more than four hundred years ago, which was
initiated by two towering figures of the seventeenth century,
Descartes and Newton.
Rene Descartes is usually regarded as the founder of modern
philosophy who had written that, “all science is certain, evident
knowledge”. It is this certainty of scientific knowledge which lies
at the heart of Cartesian philosophy, and it is from this paradigm
where some of the major philosophical flaws of thought started.
All branches of modern science were hugely influenced by
Descartes. At the centre of Descartes’ method is what he termed
radical doubt until he reaches the realisation that one cannot
doubt the existence of ourselves as a thinker. The famous
25

The New Idealism
“Cogito, Ergo sum” or “I think, therefore I exist” came from this
position.
Descarte’s cogito made mind more certain for him than
matter which lead to the conclusion that there were two separate
and fundamentally different substances, that of mind, and that of
matter. “There is nothing included in the concept of body that
belongs to the mind; and nothing in that of mind that belongs to
the body. This Cartesian division between mind and matter has
remained with Western thought right up to present day and lays
the very foundations of philosophical materialism, along with the
essence of Greek philosophy, which will be discussed later. In the
life sciences, the Cartesian division led to endless confusion about
the relation between the mind and the brain, while in physics it
made it extremely difficult for the founders of quantum theory to
interpret their observations of atomic phenomena1.
The entire philosophy of Descartes was based on the
fundamental division of two independent and separate realms –
that of mind, the res cognitans, the “thinking thing” – and that of
matter, or res extensa, the “extended thing”. In Descartes view
both mind and matter were the creations of God, who represented
their common point of reference, being the source of the exact
common point of reference and natural order and of the light of
reason that enabled the human mind to recognise this order. The
existence of God was essential to his scientific method, although,
and this is important, scientists omitted any explicit reference to
God and developed their theories according to the Cartesian
1 F. Capra, The Tao of Physics, New Science Library, Boston, 1985,
page 57.
26

The New Idealism
division, with the humanities concentrating on the “thinking
substance” and the natural sciences on the “extended substance”.
To Descartes the material universe was a machine and nothing
but a machine. This is at the very heart of the concept of
philosophical materialism. In this philosophy there was no
purpose, life, or spirituality in MATTER. Nature worked
according to mechanical laws, and everything in the material
world could be explained in terms of the arrangement and
movement of its parts. The mechanical picture of nature became
the dominant paradigm of nature and guided all scientific
observation and the formulation of all theories of natural
phenomena until 20th century physics shattered all of these
concepts.
The entire elaboration of mechanistic science in the 17th, 18th
and 19th centuries , including Newton’s grand synthesis, came
from the development of the Cartesian idea which saw nature (or
matter) as being a perfect machine, governed by exact
mathematical laws.
This rampant philosophical materialism was also extended to
the natural sciences and plants and animals were considered
simply machines, which also included human beings, although we
fortunately had a “rational soul” connected to the body by the
pineal gland. The biological function of the body could be
reduced to mechanical operations, in order to show that living
organisms were nothing but automata. This view had a huge
impact on biologists, physicians and psychologists for the past
200 years and encouraged scientists to view all organisms as
nothing but machines, a reductionist fallacy that became
especially apparent in medicine where the adherence to the
27

The New Idealism
Cartesian method of the human body as clockwork has prevented
medical practitioners many of our major illnesses.
In this background, Isaac Newton developed the achievement
of 17th century science by providing a consistent mathematical
theory of the universe that remained the solid foundation of
scientific thought well into the 20th century. The Newtonian
universe was one huge mechanical system, operating according to
exact mathematical laws.
The Newtonian universe in which all physical phenomena
took place was the three-dimensional space of classical Euclidean
geometry. It was an absolute space, an empty container that was
independent of the physical phenomena occurring in it. Newton
wrote that absolute space, in its own nature, without regard to
anything external, remains always similar and immovable2. All
changes in the physical world were described in terms of a
separate dimension while time, which again was absolute, had no
connection with the material world and flowed smoothly from the
past through the present to the future. All matter which moved in
this absolute space and absolute time consisted of material
particles. This is an important notion to the understanding of
materialism, and the philosophy behind it. The Newtonian
particles were small, solid and indestructible objects out of which
all matter was made.
This, of course, is the very heart of the doctrine of
philosophical Materialism. While the Newtonian model was
atomistic, it differed from the modern notion of atoms of different
weights or densities but in terms of more or less dense packing of
atoms. Physicist Fritjof Capra says that the Newtonian concept
2 Ibid, page 55
28

The New Idealism
saw the basic building blocks of matter could be of different sizes
but consisted of the same “stuff”, and the total amount of material
substance in an object was given by the object’s mass.
In Newton’s view, the motion of the particles was caused by
the force of gravity and acted instantaneously over a distance. The
material particles and the forces between them were of a
fundamentally different nature, with the inner constitution of the
particles being independent of their mutual interaction. Capra
says that Newton saw both the particles and the force of gravity
as created by God and thus not subject to further analysis.
The Cartesian-Newtonian world machine formed the core of
all major materialist thought since that time. All physical
phenomena in this scheme, are reduced to the motion of material
particles, caused by their mutual attraction. The concept of a
perfect world-machine also implied an external creator, a sort of
monarchical god who ruled the world from above imposing his
divine law on it. Capra points out that the physical phenomena
themselves were not thought to be divine in any sense, and when
science made it more and more difficult to believe in such a god,
the divine disappeared completely from the scientific world view.
“The philosophical basis of this secularisation of nature was the
Cartesian division between spirit and matter. As a consequence of
this division, the world was believed to be a mechanical system
that could be described objectively, without ever mentioning the
human observer, and such an objective description of nature
became the ideal of all science,” writes Capra in The Turning
Point. (page 57)3
3 F. Capra, The Turning Point, Flamingo, London, 1983, page 53
29

The New Idealism
Newtonian mechanics was used widely throughout the 18th
and 19th centuries, writes Capra. The Newtonian theory was able
to explain the motion of the planets, moons, and comets down to
minute detail. With the success of the Newtonian-Cartesian world
machine philosophical system during this time led directly to the
emphasis on “hard science” and “hard” technology in our culture.
Because of the materialist conception world view, physics
naturally became the basis of all the sciences.
The nail on the coffin for opponents of the
Newtonian-Cartesian world machine during these centuries was
Charles Darwin’s origin of Species. This theory forced biologists
to fit the Darwinian theory into the Cartesian framework, thus
paving the way for the doctrine of philosophical materialism
within all layers of the life sciences.
The new physics
Albert Einstein published two articles in 1905 and thus
changed the future of physics completely. These articles also lay
the foundations for the destruction of the concept of philosophical
materialism and reintroduced the concept of philosophical
Idealism, that of a Mind Dependent Universe. The revolution
which Einstein initiated was twofold. Firstly was his special
theory of relativity while the other was a new way of looking at
electromagnetic radiation which was to become characteristic of
the quantum theory of atomic phenomena.
According to Capra, Einstein’s scientific papers are
intellectual monuments that mark the beginning of 20th century
thought. He says Einstein strongly believed in nature’s inherent
harmony, and throughout his scientific life his deepest concern
30

The New Idealism
was to find a unified foundation of physics. He began to move
toward this goal by constructing a common framework for
electrodynamics and mechanics, the two separate theories of
classical physics. According to Capra, this theory unified and
completed the structure of classical physics, and at the same time
importantly involved radical changes in the traditional concepts
of space and time, and by so doing completely undermined the
foundations of the Newtonian world view. Einstein proposed the
general theory of relativity 10 years later, where the framework of
the special theory is extended to include gravity.
The other major development in 20th century physics was a
consequence of the experimental investigation of atoms.
Physicists discovered at the turn of the century several
phenomena connected with the structure of atoms, such as X-rays
and radioactivity, which were inexplicable in terms of classical
physics. Capra states that besides being objects of intense study,
these phenomena were used, in most ingenious ways, as new
tools to probe deeper into matter than had ever been possible
before. He says this exploration of the atomic and subatomic
world brought scientists in contact with a strange and unexpected
reality that shattered the foundations of their world view and
forced them to think in an entirely new way.
It was to be a complete revolution and nothing like this had
ever happened before. It made physicists conclude that their basic
concepts, their language, and their whole way of thinking were
inadequate to describe atomic phenomena and that the paradoxes
they encountered were an essential aspect of atomic physics, and
that classical concepts were useless.
Quantum theory, or quantum mechanics, was formulated
during the first three decades of the century by an international
31

The New Idealism
group of physicists including Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels
Bohr, Louise De Broglie, Erwin Schodinger, Wolfgang Pauli,
Werner Heisenberg and Paul Dirac.
Capra states that the scientists deeply interested in the
philosophical implications of modern physics have been trying in
an open minded way to improve their understanding of the nature
of reality. “In contrast to the mechanistic Cartesian view of the
world, the world view emerging from modern physics can be
characterised by words like organic, holistic and ecological. It
might be called a systems view, in the sense of a general systems
theory. The universe is no longer seen as a machine, made up of a
multitude of objects, but has to be pictured as one indivisible,
dynamic whole whose parts are essentially interrelated and can be
understood only as patterns of a cosmic process,“ Capra writes.
(p66)4
When physicists started investigating atoms at the start of the
20th century some extraordinary and completely unexpected
results occurred. Far from being the hard, solid particles of
time-honoured theory, atoms turned out to consist of vast regions
of space in which extremely small particles – the electrons –
moved around the nucleus. Also, it was found that electrons and
the protons and the neutron in the nucleus were nothing like the
solid objects of classical physics and were very abstract entities
which had a dual aspect, depending on how they were observed.
They could sometimes be particles and sometimes could appear
as waves. The dual nature is also exhibited in light, which can
take the form of electromagnetic waves or particles. These
4 ibid, p 66
32

The New Idealism
particles of light were first called “quanta” by Einstein, which
became known as quantum theory.
Capra states that this dual nature of matter and of light is
very strange because it seemed impossible to accept that
something can be, at the same time, a particle, which is an entity
confined to a very small volume, and a wave, which is spread out
over a vast region of space. However, this is the reality that was
being proved until it was realised that the terms “particle” and
“wave” refer to classical concepts which could not describe
atomic phenomena. In the case of an electron, it is neither a
particle nor a wave, but it may show particle-like aspects in some
circumstances and wave-like aspects in others. When it is acting
like a particle, it is capable of developing in its wave nature at the
expense of its particle nature, and vice versa, which means that it
is always in transformation from particle to wave and from wave
to particle and means that particles have no intrinsic properties
independent of the environment. The properties it shows –
particle-like or wave-like – will depend on the experimental
situation, that is, on the apparatus it is forced to interact with,
writes Capra.
The physicist Niels Bohr introduced the term or notion of
complementarily to describe this situation in that the particle
picture and the wave picture were two complementary
descriptions of the same reality. The concept of complementarily
is now an essential part of the way physicists think about nature.
The wave/particle paradox had forced physicists to question the
very nature of philosophical materialism, or the mechanical world
view which is, the concept of the reality of matter. Matter does
not exist with certainty at the subatomic level but rather shows
“tendencies to exist”, while atomic events do not occur with
33

The New Idealism
certainty at definite times and in definite ways, but rather show
“tendencies to occur”, and that the “tendencies” are expressed as
probabilities. As Capra explains: “In the formalism of quantum
mechanics, these tendencies are expressed as probabilities and are
associated with quantities that take the form of waves; they are
similar to the mathematical forms used to describe, say a
vibrating guitar string, or sound wave. This is how particles can
be waves at the same time. They are not ‘real’ three-dimensional
waves like water waves or sound waves. They are ‘probability’
waves – abstract mathematical quantities with all the
characteristic properties of waves – that are related to the
probabilities of finding the particles at particular points in space
at particular times. All the laws of atomic physics are expressed
in terms of these probabilities.”5
Furthermore, these atomic events do not describe
probabilities of things, but rather probabilities of
“interconnections” and that isolated material particles are indeed
abstractions, with their properties being definable and observable
only through their interaction with other systems, as Niel Bohr
stated. Thus, subatomic particles are not “things” but are
interconnections between “things”, and these “things” in turn, are
interconnections between other things.
Capra says that this is how modern physics reveals the basic
oneness of the universe. He says that as physicists penetrate
further and further into the nature of matter, nature does not show
any isolated building blocks, but rather appears as a complicated
web of relations between various parts of a unified whole.6
5 ibid, p 69
6 ibid, p 70
34

The New Idealism
When these quantum considerations are combined with
Einstein’s theory of relativity, many interesting notions start
developing. Relativity theory showed that space is not
three-dimensional and time is not separate. Both are intimately
connected and form a four-dimensional continuum, “space-time”.
The concepts of space and time are so basic for the description of
natural phenomena that their modification of the whole
framework that is used to describe nature. The major consequence
of this is the realisation that mass is a form of energy and that
even an object at rest has energy stored in its mass, and the
relation between the two is given by the famous equation
E=mc(2), c being the speed of light. Thus, what is being stated is
that everything in the universe is a form of energy, including the
interconnections that occur at the sub-atomic level. In modern
physics, matter is no longer associated with a material substance,
and particles are not seen as consisting of any basic “stuff”, but as
bundles of energy. This is a truly extraordinary concept because if
the universe and all the matter in the universe is energy, then the
very nature of energy comes to be examined. Capra states that
energy, however, is associated with activity, with processes, and
this implies that the nature of subatomic particles is intrinsically
dynamic. Particles can no longer be pictured as small billiard
balls, or grains of sand, but as patterns of activity, or movement
itself, which have a space aspect and a time aspect. Their space
aspect makes them appear as objects with a certain mass, their
time aspect as processes involving the equivalent energy. Capra
points out that the being of matter and activity, thus, could not be
separated as they are different aspects of the same space-time
reality.
35

The New Idealism
Our view of the forces between these particles has been radically
altered by these developments. In a relativistic description of
particle interactions, the forces between the particles, which
includes their mutual attraction or repulsion, are pictured as the
exchange of other particles. Capra says this concept is very
difficult to visualise, but it is vital to understand for understanding
of subatomic phenomena. He says it links the forces between
constituents of matter to the properties of other constituents of
matter, and thus unifies the two concepts, force and matter, which
had seemed to be fundamentally different in Newtonian physics.
Also both force and matter are now seen to have their common
origin in the dynamic patterns that we call particles. These energy
patterns of the subatomic world form the stable nuclear, atomic,
and molecular structures which build up matter and give it its
macroscopic solid aspect, which makes us believe that it is made
of some material substance. Although the notion that matter or
substance can be helpful, at the atomic level it no longer makes
sense and that in fact everything that is being witnessed in the
world is a form of energy. Capra states that atoms consist of
particles, and these particles are not made of any material stuff.
He says when we observe them we never see any substance; what
we observe are dynamic patterns continually changing into one
another – the continuous dance of energy.
From here we start asking what in fact is energy. And those
physicists asking the most vital question of exactly what energy
is, have been forced to introduce the concept of Consciousness
into the arena. Many physicists are now saying the Consciousness
produces Energy, which is a form of philosophical Idealism. This
is very much a revolutionary philosophical position but those
physicists at the cutting edge of research are saying that particle
36

The New Idealism
research is suggesting that the particles are merely patterns of
Consciousness. Now we will examine some of these theories.
The new physics as a form of
philosophical idealism
The two most basic theories of contemporary physics has
shown that the Cartesian world view and Newtonian physics have
been superseded, although, of course, they still exert a huge
influence on our way of thinking. Quantum theory shows that
matter is made up of “probability patterns”, which represents an
inseparable cosmic web that includes the human observer and
their consciousness. On the other hand, relativity theory has made
this cosmic web a dynamic character by showing that its activity
is the very essence of its being and that at the sub-atomic level the
interrelations and interactions between the parts of the whole are
more fundamental then the parts themselves.
Fritjof Capra says current research in physics aims at
unifying quantum mechanics and relativity theory into a complete
theory of sub-atomic particles. In the area of this form of research
there are basically two different kinds of “quantum-relativistic”
theories. The first deals with field theory while the second is
known as the S-Matrix theory. The other is super string theory.
Capra says that the S-matrix theory has been successful in
describing the strong interactions of particles. The theory was
founded by the physicist Geoffrey Chew in the 1960s and was
developed as a comprehensive theory of strongly interacting
particles which was tied into a more philosophical system in
itself. Capra writes that according to the bootstrap philosophy,
37

The New Idealism
nature cannot be reduced to fundamental entities, like
fundamental building blocks of matter, but has to be understood
entirely through consistency. All physics has to follow uniquely
from the requirement that its components be consistent with one
another and themselves, writes Capra. He says that this idea
radically departs from the traditional spirit of basic research in
physics which has always been the search for the fundamental
nature of matter. Bootstrap philosophy, or the S-matrix theory, is
the culmination of the conception of the material world as an
interconnected web of relations that emerged from quantum
theory. Capra writes that the bootstrap philosophy not only
abandons the idea of fundamental building blocks of matter, but
accepts no fundamental entities whatsoever – no fundamental
constants, laws or equations and the universe is seen as a dynamic
web of interrelated events. The important aspect of the theory is
that none of the properties of any part of this web is fundamental
because they all follow from the properties of the other parts. The
overall consistency of their interrelations determines the structure
of the entire web.
Capra writes that in the framework of S-matrix theory, the
bootstrap approach attempted to derive all properties of particles
and their interactions uniquely from the requirements of
self-consistency. He says the only fundamental laws accepted are
a few very general principles that are required by the methods of
observation and are essential parts of the scientific framework.
“All other aspects of particle physics are expected to emerge as a
necessary consequence of self-consistency,” Capra writes.7
7 ibid, page 85
38

The New Idealism
Capra points out that if this bootstrap approach can be
carried out successfully, the philosophical implications will be
extremely profound. “The fact that all the properties of particles
are determined by principles closely related to the methods of
observation would mean that the basic structures of the material
world are determined, ultimately, by the way we look at the
world; that the observed patterns of matter are reflection of
patterns of mind,” Capra writes profoundly8. This, of course,
clearly posits a philosophical Idealist position in that if the
structures of the material world are determined, fundamentally,
through reflections of mind, or intelligence, or Consciousness,
and is a complete breakthrough in which we perceive the world,
the universe and everything in it.
Capra writes that the phenomena of the subatomic world are
so complex that it is envisaged that a series of partly successful
models will continue to be developed. He says that each would be
intended to cover only a part of the observed phenomena and
would contain some unexplained aspects, or parameters, but the
parameters of one model might be explained by another. Thus
more and more phenomena could gradually be covered with ever
increasing accuracy by a mosaic of interlocking models whose net
number of unexplained parameters keeps decreasing. The
adjective bootstrap is thus never appropriate for any individual
model, but can be applied only to a combination of mutually
consistent models, none of which are any more fundamental than
the others, Capra says.
Geoffrey Chew has stated that a physicist who is able to view
any number of different partially successful models without
8 ibid
39

The New Idealism
favouritism is automatically a bootstrapper. One of the major new
insights of the bootstrap theory of subatomic particles is the
notion or order as a new and important aspect of particle physics,
says Capra. In this context, order means the interconnectedness of
subatomic processes.
Capra writes that when the concept of order is incorporated
into the mathematical framework of S-matrix theory, only a few
special categories of ordered relationships turn out to be
consistent with that framework and that the resulting patterns of
particle interactions are precisely those observed in nature. This is
an extraordinary concept in itself but when the picture of
subatomic particles that emerges from the bootstrap theory is
combined with the revelation that every particle consists of all
other particles, then a truly revolutionary philosophical position
starts developing. Capra points out that the particles should not be
imagined that they contain all the others in a classical, static
sense. Rather, subatomic particles are not separate entities but
interrelated energy patterns in an ongoing dynamic basis, says
Capra. He says these patterns do not ‘contain’ one another but
rather ‘involve’ one another in a way that can be given a precise
mathematical meaning but cannot easily be expressed in words”.
The significance of order in subatomic physics plays a very
basic role in the scientific approach to reality, and is a crucial
aspect of all methods of observation and is essential to the
rational mind and that every perception of a pattern is, in a sense,
a perception of order. Capra stresses that the clarification of the
concept or order in a field of research where patterns of matter
and patterns of mind are increasingly being recognised as
reflections of one another has forced physicists to include our
conception of macroscopic space-time and our conception of
40

The New Idealism
human consciousness. Increased use of the bootstrap approach
opens up the unprecedented possibility of being forced to include
the study of human consciousness explicitly in future theories of
matter. The question of consciousness has already arisen in
quantum theory in connection with the problem of observation
and measurement, but the pragmatic formulation of the theory
scientists use in their research does not refer to consciousness
explicitly. Capra says some physicists argue that consciousness
may be an essential aspect of the universe, and that we may be
blocked from further understanding of natural phenomena if we
insist on excluding it. What is being posited again here is a form
of philosophical Idealism and Capra says that there are two main
approaches in physics that come very close to dealing with
consciousness explicitly. The bootstrap theory is one that has
received considerable attention while the other has been
developed by the maverick physicist David Bohm.
Bohm’s theory begins with the notion of “unbroken
wholeness” and his aim was to explore the order inherent in the
cosmic web of relations at a deeper, “nonmanifest” level. Bohm
called these the “implicate” order, or “enfolded” order, and
compares it to the analogy of a hologram. Holograms are
three-dimensional images created with the aid of a laser. For
example, when a person shines a laser beam through a piece of
photographic film containing the encoded image of an apple, a
three-dimensional image of the apple will appear on the other side
of the film. If the film is cut in half and a laser is shone through
each piece, two complete three-dimensional images will appear.
Then again, if the film is cut into four pieces, four apples appear.
Each piece of holographic transparency contains the entire image,
in which each part, in some sense, contains the whole. If any part
41

The New Idealism
of the hologram is illuminated, the entire image will be
reconstructed. Bohm believed the real world was structured
according to the same general principles, with the whole enfolded
in each of its parts.
Capra says Bohm realised that the hologram was too static to
be used as a scientific model for the implicate order at the
subatomic level and coined the term “holomovement”. The
holomovement was a dynamic phenomenon out of which all
forms of the material universe flowed. Bohm found it necessary
to regard consciousness as an essential feature of the
holomovement and to take it into account explicitly in his theory.
Mind and matter were simply interdependent and correlated
mutually enfolding projections of a higher reality.
During his life Bohm stated his position philosophically:
“The mental and the material are two sides of one overall process
that are (like form and content) separated only in thought and not
in actuality. Rather, there is one energy that is the basis of all
reality…There is never any division between mental and material
sides at any stage of the overall process.”9
This eventually led Bohm to consider the presence of
“proto-conscious” properties at the level of particle physics. He
used the analogy to illustrate this apparent “knowing” properties
of subatomic particles, of the movements of electrons in the
laboratory to those of ballet dancers responding to a musical
score, with the score itself constituting “a common pool” of
information that guides each of the dancers as he takes steps.
Bohm wrote that in the case of the electrons, the ‘score’ is of
course the wave function. As with the dancer, the electrons are
9 D. Zohar, The Quantum Self, London, Flaming 1991, page 41
42

The New Idealism
thus participating in a common action based on a pool of
information, rather than pushing or pulling on each other
mechanically according to laws like those of classical physics.
For Bohm, this sharing of information, this mutual
“knowing”, could be the elementary conscious awareness of each
particle. Bohm is positing a pan physicist notion here similar to
the thinking of Spinoza. A major aspect of the holographic view
of consciousness is the implications it has for consciousness as a
field because if consciousness is a field and only one vibration
then all other fields are enfolded into this. The holomovement
points out that physics cannot undertake the project of
ascertaining the law of the whole because relativity and quantum
theory had shown that Newtonian laws had only limited
relevance. The notion of the implicate order becomes the totality
of what constitutes the holomovement, which in itself is
“undefinable and immeasurable”, which is what mind or
consciousness would be.
Bohm believes that just as quantum systems are essentially
unified, so are our thought processes. He writes: “Thought
process and quantum systems are analogous in that they cannot be
analysed too much in terms of distinct elements, because the
‘intrinsic’ nature of each element is not a property existing
separately from and independently of other elements but is,
instead, a property that arises partially from its relation with other
elements.”10
The Oxford physicist Roger Penrose has supported a great
deal of what Bohm is suggesting. Penrose has stated that quantum
theory and the physics of consciousness, as it is now called,
10 ibid, page 59
43

The New Idealism
clearly indicates that the universe as a whole could be a form of
consciousness. He has stated his position with these words:
“Quantum physics involves many highly intriguing and
mysterious kinds of behaviour. Not the least of these are the
non-local quantum correlations which can occur over widely
separated distances. It seems to me to be a definite possibility that
such things could be playing a role in conscious thought modes.
Perhaps it is not too fanciful to suggest that quantum correlations
could be playing an operative role over large regions of the brain.
Might there be any relation between a ‘state of awareness’ and a
highly coherent quantum state in the brain? Is the ‘oneness’ or
‘globality’ that seems to be a feature of consciousness connected
with this? It is somewhat tempting to believe so.”11
Bohm pointed out more than 40 years ago that there were many
striking similarities between the behaviour of our thought
processes and that of some quantum processes
Bohm states that just as life as we know it would be
impossible if quantum theory did not have a present classical
limit, though as we know it would be impossible unless we could
express its results in logical terms. Bohm points out that the vital
link between thought processes and quantum processes, between
ourselves and electrons, is clearly explaining how consciousness
can be seen in terms of quantum mechanical features. This is truly
a revolutionary concept and once again is clearly a form of
philosophical Idealism in that both quantum reality and the actual
structure and functioning of the brain are reflections of the same
thing – that reality, or rather quantum reality, is being structured
in exactly the same way that mind is being structured. That the
11 ibid, page 61
44

The New Idealism
entire universe is a form of thought because it is a macroscopical
reflection of quantum consciousness and even the very internal
processes of the brain.
What is being suggested here is that Consciousness itself is
the quantum process and produces matter.
Matter is being produced by the quantum process of
consciousness. Now this form of philosophical Idealism is very
much a Berkleyian form of Idealism in this instance.
Some other theories of physics
which posit idealism
One of the most impressive theories to come from the New
Age that posits philosophical Idealism is that put forward by two
British thinkers, David Ash and Peter Hewitt. Both Ash and
Hewitt were trained as scientists at London and Cambridge
universities and have come up with a theory which says that
Thought itself is creating the Material Universe. Firstly they posit
the notion that an elementary particle is a vortex of energy. They
say that energy is not material and that it is dynamic in that it
involves action and change, and that in fact it could be pictured as
simply movement.
“Just as movement cannot exist without direction, so energy
cannot exist without form,” they write in their book Science of
the Gods.12 The two fundamental forms of energy in our world
12 D. Ash and P. Hewitt, Science of the Gods, Gateway Books, Bath,
1990, page 26
45

The New Idealism
are matter and light and that light is often taken to be a wave form
of energy.
Ash and Hewitt say that the two major pillars of 20th century
physics are relativity and quantum theory, and that the concept of
the vortex will complement significant areas of both these
achievements. “In Quantum theory, for example, it can begin to
provide models which give physical reality to otherwise obscure
concepts. Take, for instance, the enigma of quantum spin.
Quantum theory regards this elusive property as somehow
intrinsic to the particle, but insists that it is not a form of particle
rotation. The vortex shows quite clearly that spin is absolutely
intrinsic to the particle, being fundamental to its very existence,”
they write.13
With regard to relativity, they say that the vortex account of
space is entirely compatible with Einstein’s theory.
Ash and Hewitt stress, and this as an extremely important
concept, that realising our world is nothing but energy is the
crucial step for an understanding of the universe. They say that
energy is the prime reality. “Energy is the prime reality. Energy is
the foundation of everything in the universe, from the minute
atom to the mighty galaxy. But is the physical universe the only
reality? If matter and light – its building blocks – are purely two
forms of energy, could there be other energy, in non-material
forms?” Ash and Hewitt write.
Ash and Hewitt say that a particle of matter is a swirling ball
of energy, a spherical vortex of movement. Light is a different
form of energy, but according to Ash and Hewitt, it is obvious
from Einstein’s E=mc(2) equation, that matter and light share a
13 ibid, page 30
46

The New Idealism
common movement. In E=mc(2), they say, it is c, the speed of
light, which relates matter to energy. “From this, we can draw a
simple conclusion. It is obvious: the speed of movement in matter
must be the speed of light. This is the only possible sense we can
make of Einstein’s equation. If, in a particle of matter, the vortex
movement is at the speed of light.”14
Then Ash and Hewitt say that as energy has been equated
with movement, why is all movement constrained by the speed of
light. They say that science has come to the conclusion that
nothing can move faster than the speed of light. This applies to all
forms of energy, including particles of matter and light. But Ash
and Hewitt ask if it applies to the movement which underlies
energy itself, the primal movement from which matter and light
themselves arise.
“This is the crucial question. It all boils down to what energy
is. Whilst physicists will not commit themselves to saying what
energy is, they are adamant that energy cannot move faster than
the speed of light. But if forms of energy are intrinsically forms of
movement, then movement is more fundamental than energy.
Why should pure movement be limited to the speed of light?”15
Ash and Hewitt then add that if movement could have a faster
speed, it would give rise to a completely different type of energy
which they call super energy. “Energy and super energy would be
different in substance. Movement at the speed of light could be
described as the substance of energy in the physical world. The
14 ibid, page 33
15 ibid
47

The New Idealism
substance of super energy would be movement at a faster
speed.”16
Ash and Hewitt say that objects of super energy could share
the same form as things in our world, but their substance would
be entirely different because matter would not interact with them
and light would not reflect off them.
Ash and Hewitt have called this the theory of
transubstantiation. They say that science is concerned mainly with
the changing forms of energy but that this theory explains the
barrier between the natural and the supernatural, the normal and
the paranormal. “Through transubstantiation, an object could
materialise or dematerialise…Transubstantiation would take an
object through the light barrier and into the realm of the
super-physical. The light barrier would be the dividing line
between the physical and the super-physical.”17
Ash and Hewitt say movement and not material is the reality
underlying the universe. They say there is nothing concrete in the
universe and there is no underlying material there at all, with
movement the sole reality. “This is a staggering thought. People
mostly imagine our world to be made up of substantial things that
move. In reality, it is quite the opposite. Movement exists first
and foremost. Everything in the universe is relative to the speed
of light, which is itself a measure of movement. Pure movement
creates our world – from light and warmth to the wind and rain,
from trees and mountains to the laughter of children playing,”
Ash and Hewitt write.18
16 ibid, page 35
17 ibid, page 37
18 ibid, page 170
48

The New Idealism
Then they ask the question what could movement be? How
can there be movement if there is nothing to move. They claim
that this movement appears to be an abstraction. “Could it be that
the movement underpinning the universe is an abstract reality?
Could it be purely the idea of movement? Is the universe but a
vision of movement, a pure act of imagination,” they write.19
They say that if the movement underlying energy is an act of
pure imagination, then every particle of matter is simply
“imagined” into existence and that every bit of energy and super
energy is nothing but an idea, which is a pure form of
philosophical Idealism. But this is very much a new form of
Idealism because obviously there could be various speeds of the
flow of ideas. If the universe is nothing but a dream, then the
dream has various speeds of being recorded.
Ash and Hewitt also distinguish between the concept of the
dream and the dreamer. They say that a dream is distinct from the
dreamer. “Likewise the creation is quite distinct from the creator.
This account of the universe is not a form of pantheism.
Pantheism claims that God is the substance of everything, that all
things are formed out of God. The universe is formed out of
movement which has no substance, be it material or God.
Movement is the act of God, not the substance of God,” they
write.20
They ask the question that if the universe is an unfolding act
of imagination, it could be viewed as a vast body of thought.
Every movement, every bit of energy, would be a thought form
and that every particle of matter and light, as an act of
19 ibid, page 171
20 ibid, page 172
49

The New Idealism
imagination, would be thought in the mind of God. “Could it be
that the universe in its entirety is simply the mind of God?” they
write. 21 They say that in mind, we see the conjunction of
consciousness and thought. Mind could be the body of thought
but consciousness is quite distinct from thought. They say that
consciousness is not thought, it is the awareness that lies behind
thought. “Consciousness can exist without thought, but without
consciousness there is no awareness of thought,” Ash and Hewitt
write. In the end, they say, that perhaps there are only two
fundamental realities; consciousness and thought. They say that if
the universe is the mind of God, then god would be the
consciousness underlying it.
In this theory, consciousness is not energy, nor is it the
consequence of any form of energy. Rather, consciousness is the
source of all energy, pervading the whole of creation even to the
sub-atomic level. Ash and Hewitt say that Consciousness could
be taken to correspond to “spirit”. They say that it is as if God
creates the universe and then experiences thought every single
part of it. God experiences being a blade of grass and a tree, being
an eagle and a dolphin.
Ash and Hewitt’s theory of transubstantiation has some
astounding philosophical implications and is clearly a form of
philosophical Idealism. This is also the theory that would aptly
describe what mystics for thousands of years have said: that we
see only 10 per cent of the universe. Using the theory of
transubstantiation, the other 90 per cent of the universe would
exist in super energy, in the super-physical world. It would also
describe a great deal of paranormal phenomenon because objects
21 ibid
50

The New Idealism
could go through the light barrier at will. But also, and very
profoundly, it makes the universe itself much vaster for if we see
only 10 per cent of the universe in our space-time, then the other
90 per cent would make the universe truly enormous. It also gives
scientific evidence to what the Indians calls Prana and what the
Chinese call Chi energy – but has never been verifiable. These
energies, then, would be low levels of super energy. At faster
levels of super energy, the mind of God would move at faster
speeds. Thus, what is happening here is that the mind of god
works at much slower speeds in our space-time and is restricted to
the speed of light. But in the speeds of super energy, there are,
presumably, various dimensions of speed, such as the fifth, sixth,
seventh, eighth and ninth dimensions. The theory of super energy
also fully explains how aliens travel the vast distances they do.
Their ships use computers to register super energy which gives
messages to conscious energy which in turn sends the ship
through the light barrier and into inter-stellar travel. Super energy
also fully explains how Sai Baba teleports and bi-locates, and
archangels exist in super energy. This is where they flex their real
power because super energy can impinge on energy.
There are many other theories which deal with the New
Physics that have not received the same attention as some of the
previous ones that also offer support for a form of philosophical
Idealism. Robert Jahn, who was a professor of aerospace sciences
and dean emeritus of the School of engineering and Applied
Science at Princeton has been collating evidence over more than a
decade of research that mind can interact with physical matter. In
a series of lengthy experiments Jahn had people sit in front of a
random number generator, which is an automatic coin flipper, in a
bid to get the machine into producing more heads than tails. After
51

The New Idealism
virtually hundreds of thousands of trials he discovered that
volunteers could indeed exert a small but statistically significant
effect on the random number generator’s output.
Jahn and physicist Brenda Dunne’s book titled The Margins
of Reality: The Role of Consciousness in the Physical World
looks carefully at a number of aspects at the claim that the world
is a construct of consciousness. They claim that it is the
interaction between consciousness and reality described in
quantum theory that provides the key. Since all quanta can
manifest either as a wave or a particle, it is not unreasonable to
assume that consciousness does as well. It is particle-like when it
appears to be inside our heads, but in its wave-like phase it can
interact with the physical world. Both believe that consciousness
cannot exist separately from the physical world because the
process is much more subtle. “It may be that such concepts are
simply not viable, that we cannot talk profitably about an abstract
environment or an abstract consciousness. The only thing we can
experience is the interpenetration of the two in some way,” writes
Jahn22.23
Physicists T.Gornitz and C.C.von Weizsacker have stressed
that mind plays a role in the creation of the material universe but
they want to bring the observer more explicitly into our
understanding of quantum physics. They have tried to formulate
meaningful ways to relate quantum phenomena to states of mind.
22 ibid
23 M. Talbot, Mysticism and the New Physics, Penquin, London, 1993,
page 16
52

The New Idealism
“There is no distinction between substances called mind and
matter,” says Weizsacker.24
Roger Sperry of the California Institute of Technology, who
won a Nobel Prize for his pioneering split-brain studies, has
stated that he became extremely disillusioned with the materialist
and behaviourist doctrine that has dominated neuroscience for
most of the 20th century. He has stated that science should never
have disregarded the concept of consciousness as a guiding force
in the world. “Instead of renouncing or ignoring
consciousness…(we should) give full recognition to the primacy
of inner conscious awareness as a casual reality.”
Prominent physicist John Wheeler has said that the mind
may be responsible for the creation of the universe but condemns
the use of the term consciousness. He prefers the term “intelligent
observer”, which he defines as anything that is “meaning
sensitive”.
Wheeler coined the term geometrodynamics for a theory
developed by himself and others from Einstein’s general theory of
relativity. The theory is concerned with the dynamics of curved
space, and proposes that the Einsteinian concept of
four-dimensional space-time is limited and has introduced the
concept of “superspace” because it is multidimensional. The
theory implies that space-time is “multiply connected” and that
people have to forgo the view of nature in which every event,
past, present or future, occupies its preordained position in grand
category called “space-time”.
24 ibid
53

The New Idealism
Other regions of the new idealism: The New Age
The trend towards philosophical Idealism can particularly be
felt in the philosophies of the New Age, which is very much a
serious movement and incorporates such extremely important and
well respected religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and also
major trains of thought within Chinese philosophy as well as
some branches of western mysticism. The New Age movement is
also particularly interested in the rise of scientific culture that is
opposed to philosophical materialism, such as the philosophies
put forward by Fritjof Capra, David Bohm, Geoffrey Chew to
other famous and respected scientists such as Gregory Bateson,
Lawrence LeShan, James Lovelock, Abraham Maslow, Rupert
Sheldrake, Carl Simonton, Robert Toben, Ken Wilber plus many
other new writers, especially those who work in the medical
sciences.
Many of these writers represent a world-wide movement of
thinking which has been strongly attacking the basis of
philosophical materialism. The New Age movement has attracted
the scorn of both the materialistically based academic institutions,
which are deeply Cartesian, to the fundamentalist religions of the
western world. Ironically, the New Age philosophies which
sprung to life in the 1950s and 1960s have much in common in
Europe throughout the 19th century. And to be absolutely
academic, the New Age movement itself really began in the 19th
century when the Theosophical Society was founded by Madame
Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott in 1875. The formation of the
society was aimed at the expression of the brotherhood of
humanity, the study of comparative religion to establish a
universal ethic and the development of the latent powers of the
54

The New Idealism
human soul. The society had adopted the motto, “There is no
religion higher than Truth.”
The specific doctrines of the society remain a fascinating
melange of esoteric Buddhism, Lamaist doctrines from Tibet,
Hindu mysticism and a romantic picture of world history which
postulates a non-physical period of prehistoric evolution with the
ecosphere gradually solidifying into matter, and a series of root
races stretching all the way back to lost Atlantis.
Generally, however, the New Age movement lay dormant
throughout the first half of the 20th century, although there
certainly were movements that were exceptions, such as Aldous
Huxley and Christopher Isherwood who together brought a great
deal of Indian Hinduism to the western world. Both of these
writers produced brilliant and original philosophical work
outlining what exactly Indian philosophy and Hinduism was to a
Western world strongly dictated by scientism and materialism.
However, the vast majority of people knew little about the
philosophies of the East and knew hardly anything of Eastern
medicines and healing practices.
The early crusaders of the New Age were those people in
both the East and the West who began to experiment with esoteric
knowledge from the East. In the West, a counter culture
developed among writers and intellectuals who became interested
in Eastern thought and philosophy. In the United States shortly
after the Second World War new attitudes started to develop. A
group of writers known as the Beat Generation, which included
such famous and celebrated authors such as poet Allen Ginsberg,
novelists Jack Kerouac and William Burroughs, as well as a
handful of other Eastern scholars such as Alan Watts, popularised
Eastern thought through their writings in the 1950s. When Jack
55

The New Idealism
Kerouac’s novel The Dharma Bums was published throughout the
United States in the mid to late 1950s a frenzy of interest had
been created in what Eastern thought represented.
By the 1960s celebrated authors such as Herman Hesse had
received the Nobel Prize for writing important novels dealing
with Eastern concepts. While the counter culture grew, a new
generation also became immersed in some aspects of Eastern
philosophy. Many western youths of that era travelled widely
throughout Eastern countries, especially India.
One of the major philosophical threads of the New Age
movement has been the firm understanding in the notion of
philosophical Idealism. Virtually all of the Eastern philosophies
pursued were forms of philosophical Idealism as well as the
esoteric philosophies of the West, such as suffism, the Occult and
some forms of Christianity, such as those developed by the
Liberation Theologists in Latin American countries.
In the past 30 years from the beginning of the 1970s, the
New Age movement has tended to develop into an extremely
serious movement that incorporates the ecology movements, the
human potential movement, the many and varied Eastern sects,
many political movements and a huge and varied number of
spiritual organisations committed to human liberation through
consciousness expansion.
Throughout the New Age movement there is a shared
commitment to the founding principles of the Theosophy Society
and its respect for the unification of all religious and
philosophical dogmas that stress the importance of all spiritual
legacies. Buddhists, Hindus and Taoists have shared heritage with
Moslems, Christians and animists claim New Age practitioners.
The work of Aldous Huxley examined this notion in detail with
56

The New Idealism
the philosophies of the Vedanta, which says that all religions
share a similar outlook, creed and path towards an understanding
of spiritual processes.
Eastern philosophies have particularly caught the eye of the
New Age movement in the West due to their adherence to organic
ways of healing as well as a conceptual philosophy that has been
more akin to developments in science. There has also been the
fact that many Eastern philosophies stress direct mystical
experience as a way to human liberation, a concept that has not
been encouraged by Western theologians, who have always
stressed the separateness of mystical transcendence. Eastern
philosophies have also incorporated many of the most important
traditions of western religions and philosophies. In both
Buddhism and Hinduism the concept of Christ has been
developed and incorporated into the fabric and structure of the
myths and legends that make up the very basis of these religions.
Even at the very esoteric heart of Buddhism the figure of Lord
Maitreya has been worshipped for thousands of years. Today
Lord Maitreya is thought esoterically to be the New Christ and
the Theosophicist Society has for more than 100 years told of the
return of Christ. Some New Agers say the Christ (or Lord
Maitreya) has already returned and is living as an Indian man in
Europe, specifically based in London. Lord Maitreya is said to be
the brother of Buddha and is also said esoterically to be the entity
of Lord Krishna. Thus the relationship between Eastern
philosophy and Western religion is far and much closer than
many thinkers give it credit.
According to Fritjof Capra, the changes brought about by
modern physics are very similar to the views held in Eastern
mysticism and show surprising parallels to the ideas expressed in
57

The New Idealism
the Eastern philosophies of the Far East. These parallels have
been noticed by some of the great physicists of our century when
they came into contact with Far Eastern culture during their tours
to India, China and Japan.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer has said that the general notions
about understanding which are illustrated by discoveries in
atomic physics are not in their nature unfamiliar or new because
Buddhist and Hindu thought has a long history in such thinking.
Niels Bohr has said: “For a parallel to the lesson of atomic
theory…we must turn to those kinds of epistemological problems
with which already thinkers like the Buddha and Lao Tzu have
been confronted when trying to harmonise our position as
spectators and actors in the great drama of existence.”2526
Capra stresses that the two foundations of 20th century
physics – quantum theory and relativity theory – both force us to
see the world very much in the way a Hindu, Buddhist or Taoist
sees it, and how this similarity strengthens when we look at the
recent attempts to combine these two theories in order to describe
the phenomena of submicroscopic world, and it is here that the
parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism are most
striking.
The difference between Eastern and Western mysticism is
that mystical schools have always played a marginal role in the
West, whereas they constitute the mainstream of Eastern
philosophical and religious thought.
All Eastern philosophies are a form of philosophical
idealism. In India intimations of advanced theism, both in deistic
25 ibid, page 161
26 F. Capra, The Tao of Physics, page 18
58

The New Idealism
and immanesenistic form, are to be found in the Rig Veda. The
early Upanishads in general teach an impersonal Idealism,
according to which the World Ground (brahman) is identified
with the universal soul (atman) which is the inner or essential self
within each individual person. The Bhagavad Gita, while mixing
pantheism, immanent theism, and deism, inclines towards a
personalistic idealism and a corresponding ethics of bhakti.
Many of the schools of Buddhism teach idealistic doctrines
from a monistic immaterialism and subjectivism where the
Absolute is pure consciousness to an immaterialistic idealism
with non-absolutist idealism. Within Indian thought the most
influential Vedantic system is the monistic spiritualism of
Shankara where the Absolute is pure interminable being, which
can only be described as pure consciousness of Bliss itself.
Vedantic Idealism, whether in its monistic and impersonalistic
form is the dominant type of metaphysics in India. Idealism is
also pronounced in the reviving doctrines of Shivaism.
In China, the traditional basic concepts of Chinese
metaphysics are ideal. Heaven, the spiritual and moral power of
cosmic and social order, that distributes to each thing, is
theistically and personalistically conceived in the Shu Ching
(Book of Poetry). It was also interpreted by Confucius and
Mencius. Tao, as a cosmic principle, is an impersonal, immaterial
World Ground. Mayayana Buddhism introduced into China an
Idealistic influence while pure metaphysical idealism was thought
by Buddhist monk Hsuan Ch’uang. Important Buddhist and
Taoist influences appear in the Sung Confucianism which was a
distinctly Idealistic movement. Chou Tun I taught that matter, life
and mind emerge from Wu Chi (Pure Being). The Chinese sage
59

The New Idealism
espoused an essential objective idealism in that the world is the
content of a Universal Consciousness.
Buddhism
Buddhist philosophy, which was originally an Indian
religion, has become an extremely important area of the New
Age, particularly through its meditation processes that have been
developed in Burma, Japan and China. These meditations have
developed over thousands of years and incorporate the concept of
Philosophical Idealism into a profound understanding of deeper
meditation.
Buddhist techniques stress that empirical reality does not
contain anything essential or lasting and that transmigration can
be obtained through meditation. It has, in many traditions,
emphasized the transitory nature of the world of phenomena and
that suffering is the most basic characteristic. However, and this
is an extremely important concept in Buddhism, suffering can be
overcome through meditation in which nirvana can be realized.
The nature of nirvana, or rather, the principle of nirvana, is
the most important element of Buddhist healing and Buddhism
itself. Basically nirvana is the liberation from the cycle of death
and rebirth, the entire doctrine of reincarnation. Essentially,
Buddhist see that reincarnation is not the goal of life. Precise
definitions of the concept vary between the different Buddhist
schools. It is generally understood that this means freedom from
60

The New Idealism
suffering, ignorance and self-interest, and more positively as the
achieving of disinterested wisdom and compassion.27
As it is normally understood through the teaching which
were handed down, nirvana can be obtained by the famous
eight-fold path or morality which includes right speech, right
views, right intention, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort,
right mindfulness and right concentration. Many Buddhist healers
appear not too perturbed if these qualities are not attained in this
life.28
Since the texts of Pali Canon, and later in the Mahayana, one
of the most important aspect of the aspiring Buddhist is the
conversion of suffering into the aspiration to attain enlightenment.
In other Buddhist texts such as the Lotus Sutra the healer is
described as the teacher of the law. This text says the most
profound healing process is spiritual healing, taking place on an
interior plane. This revolves around the gradual elimination of the
three inner “poisons” which are lust, anger and delusion, as well
as the removal of the “karmic” veils or obstructions which have
been built through the human world of thoughts, deeds and words
throughout many lifetimes. This type of healing leads to direct
apprehension of reality, to the awakened state of enlightenment.29
Early Buddhist teachings taught that the four elements of
life, as stated in the various texts of the Pali Canon, are robes,
lodging, food and medicine and that according to Buddhist texts,
the maintenance of health is directly related to proper diet and
27 E. Campbell and J.H. Brennan, The Aquarian Guide to the New Age,
The Aquarian Press, Northamptonshire, 1990, page 72
28 ibid, page 72
29 R. Birnbaum, The Healing Buddha, Rider, London, 1979, page 4
61

The New Idealism
meditation and that the Buddha frequently made analogies to
disease and healing to explain various facets of his teaching.
Buddhist meditation practices involves successful cultivation
of five meditations. This involves meditation of stabilizing
thoughts by counting breaths, meditation of pacifying and settling
the mind, meditation of non-exhaling of breath, meditation of
reflecting and Absolute form and meditation of serene abiding.
Once the devotee has a strong spiritual foundation, s/he will have
a vision of the supreme Healer and through the special help of
beings of advanced spiritual evolution, the devotee is propelled
towards Buddhahood. Various meditative states are then
experienced, and the Buddhas convey more teachings. Many
aspects of the Bodhisattvas of Healing build upon the foundation
of principles elucidated in the Pali Canon.
Mahayana Buddhism, which developed through the North
into China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam, became popular due to
various Buddhas and according to basic Nahayana teachings of
the Lotus Sutra, there are Buddhas dwelling in all the realms of
the universe. These Buddhas have a name, which often indicates
their spiritual emphasis, and each presides over a “pure land”. The
pure land is described as a spirit realm, where all the inhabitants
can concentrate on spiritual growth.
Knowledge gained by humans of these beings and their
realms stems from the revelations of Sakamuni, the historical
Buddha. This Buddha is seen as a link between the earth and the
many spiritual realms and is regarded as the great spiritual master
who reveals the potent divine forces of the universe and initiates
and instructs disciples on the methods of invocation.
The history of Buddhism shows that when Sakamuni
revealed the sutra on the Buddha of Healing, there were 12 yaksa
62

The New Idealism
generals in the assembly at that time. According to Indian
tradition, yaksas are strong beings who often cause diseases
through demonic possession. These strong warrior generals
vowed to accept and hold to the name of Buddha of Healing.
Chinese Buddhist practices over the past few centuries has
included the extensive worship of the Buddha of Healing. It is
claimed that the most fundamental trinity of deities commonly
depicted on the principle alter in the main worship hall of large
monasteries, as well as being found in most local temples,
consists of the divine forces watching over the living and the
dead. Theravada Buddhism, which spread to three countries in
Asia including Thailand, Burma and Sri Lanka. This form of
Buddhism is regarded by many as being the most traditional
because it was here that Buddhism first spread. Burmese
Theravarda Buddhism is extremely rigourous and has attracted
world-wide attention with its meditation practice of Vipissana,
which some monks claim is extremely arduous but certainly
worth the effort. Burmese Buddhism has constantly been under
threat in the past 40 years due to the tyrannical fascist regime
which has tried to inhibit the practice of the religion. It is
estimated now that many monks in that country are simply trying
to avoid military service, where they would be forced to kill their
own people.
Tibetan Buddhism has probably developed into one of the
most well-known forms of Buddhism world-wide. A Branch of
Mahayana Buddhism, the Vajrayana or Adamantine Vehicle
school is prevalent in Tibet and Mongolia. It is regarded as a
highly practical form of mysticism, and affords precise techniques
for attaining that wisdom whereby humanity’s ego is negated and
they can enter upon the Bliss of their own divinity.
63

The New Idealism
For more than a 1000 years, these Buddhist techniques were
developed at Nalanda University in India at the time of the
Roman occupation of Britain. They were handed down from
teacher to disciple and carefully guarded from outsiders. Since the
invasion of Tibet, the Lamas have come to recognise that the
sacred knowledge may decline and vanish. Tibetan Buddhism
specializes in Tantric mystical techniques that have few parallels
in other religions or in other schools of Buddhism. Their way is
the Way of Power which leads to the mastery of good and evil. It
is also the way of transformation whereby inward and outward
circumstances are transmuted into weapons by the power of the
mind.
What is unique about the Tantric method is its wealth of
techniques for utilizing all things good and evil to that tend
because manipulation of these forces provides power. Wisdom
and compassion are the means and the liberation of ourselves and
all sentient beings is the goal, perfect at one moment with pure
undifferentiated Mind, a synonym for the stainless Void.
Tantric Buddhists extoll faith as the most essential way
towards enlightenment – not blind faith, or faith in dogmas, but
faith that the goal exists. The conduct of a Vajrayana adept is
likely to be unorthodox. The active philosophy behind this is that
a person does not except such things as eating and sex – the
energy of passions and desires must be yoked, not wasted because
everything can be turned into a good account.
It is this aspect of Tantric Buddhism which has lead to the
great error of confounding its with libertinism. Though all things
are employed as a means, they must be rightly used and their use
is far removed from sensual gratification. Such a path also
discourages metaphysical speculation and it is held that the
64

The New Idealism
universe is not the work of a supreme god and not a creation at all
but rather a delusion, which makes each being suppose that s/he
has a separate ego, a genuine self-contained entity. This
conviction leads to self—love, which serves in turn to solidify the
ego-consciousness and immune us in the virtually endless round
of birth and death known as Samsara and hence we are governed
by Avidhya – the primordial ignorance or delusion.
Within Samsara everything is transient, everything subject to
duhkha (suffering) and nothing has its true own being, since it
cannot exist independently of others even for a moment.
Generally, Theravad Buddhism advocates the existence of
God or Godhead while Mahayana Buddhists think of divine
reality not as a person to be adored but as a state to be obtained.
They regard delusion, the universe as we see it now, not as a
creation of divine reality because it does not proceed from a
divine source but from our own ignorance.
Hinduism and Indian Philosophy
The main thrust of Indian philosophy stems from Hinduism,
which is one of the world’s greatest religions. The religion is the
produce of an ancient wisdom which is rooted in the mystical
experiences of its founders, the Vedic Sages. From the beginning,
the stamp of mysticism is clearly evident in the fundamental
precepts of Hinduism.
The main idea behind the religion is that is teaches an
ultimate unity behind the multiplicity of manifest appearance,
personified in the deity of Brahma. The word Hindu was
originally a geographical rather than a religious term and was first
used in the Persian Empire, and then by the Greeks who followed
65

The New Idealism
Alexander in his conquests. The Indians we call Hindus do not
among themselves use that term for their religion – to them it is
vaidika-dharma, the Vedic religion, or simply sanatana-dharma,
the eternal religion, the primordial tradition as it has been since
the first unrolling of the universe.
Most westerners think Hinduism as unchanging but in reality
it has almost continuously developed. But what is unchanging is
the bedrock of metaphysical principles upon which Hinduism
rests, and this is symbolised by the special position accorded to
the Vedas, the sacred texts regarded as unalterable truth.
Hinduism is strikingly different from other religions in that it has
no fixed minimum of doctrine. There is no Hindu creed and no
central authority, no Vatican or Pope. Hinduism is not a tightly
defined religion but rather the way of thought of an entire ancient
and populous civilization.
A widely used way of defining a Hindu is as a person who
accepts the authority of the Vedas in religious matters. With the
case of Buddhism and its followers, they reject Vedic authority,
and are not generally regarded as Hindus, although, of course,
some of the central tenets of Hinduism are also shared by
Buddhism. Many Hindus have come to regard the Buddha as the
10th incarnation of Vishnu, while other insist that the idea that
Buddhism is radically distinct from Hinduism is a Western
interpretation.
The vedas are central for Hinduism. The four original books,
together with the accretions which gathered round them, play a
role which is comparable to that of revelation in Semitic religions.
The oldest parts of the Vedas contain the religious poetry of the
Aryan people, who entered India sometime during the second
millennium BC. This early vedic religion, centred upon the
66

The New Idealism
sacrifice to the gods, is still preserved as an element within
Hinduism by India’s priestly class, the Brahmins.
According to Stephen Cross, a Hindu scholar, two great
traditions originating in the Vedas run throughout the course of
Hinduism, which gives rise to different forms. He says that one
tradition is theistic which says that Brahman is a personal God,
which is usually Vishnu or Shiva, and does not differ dramatically
from the western idea of God. In this sense Brahman is all
powerful, benevolent and responds to human love. Brahman
creates the universe, sustains it and will one day withdraw it into
His own being from which he will once again come forth.
Cross says that the other tradition is more uniquely Indian
and posits the philosophy that reality in its ultimate nature is
beyond all forms and consequently beyond the reach of the mind.
If it is true ultimate reality it can have no parts or internal
divisions, and hence no qualities, nor can there be any other
principles which stands over against it. In this sense reality can
only be one. Cross says this tradition of the concept of a Personal
God – a Brahman with qualities is valid at its own level, but it is
not the highest Brahman, not the ultimate truth. That lies beyond
the differentiations on which the idea of a personal God depends.
The highest Brahman is A-dvaita, that is to say, ‘Non Dual’. For
this tradition, Brahman is conceived impersonally, or rather as
supra-personal. Brahman is pure awareness, pure consciousness;
or, as is sometimes said, satcit-ananda, ‘being – consciousness bliss’
conceived as a single undifferentiated reality.
Hindus treat Rama and Krishna not as gods, but avatas,
“descends” – human incarnations of Vishnu, for since he is the
upholder of the world it is he who descends in this way to protect
it. In the same way, a person’s own Guru, or spiritual Guide, can
67

The New Idealism
be seen as an incarnation of God because ideally a guru is one
who has identified completely with their own innermost reality
and that reality is divine in itself. In the 20th century India has
produced many well-known gurus and holy men and women.
Perhaps the most well known is the Maharishi Mahesh, the
founder of Transcendental meditation. Others include Swami
Muktananda, Bhagwan Sri Nityananda, Shri Mataji, Mother
Merra, Meher Baba, Sri Ramakrishna and the famous “sex” Guru
Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. Another major figure is Sai Baba, who
has a following of millions. The Indians regard him as an Avatar
and he is well-known for his materialisations. Esoterically, Sai
Baba is regarded as a Cosmic Avatar while Lord Maitreya in
London is regarded as a planetary avatar. Under Lord Maitreya is
said to exist a group of ascended masters, perfected humans, who
also inhabit many cities and towns around the world, while the
spiritual “whitehouse” of the planet is said to be Shamballa,
where our planet’s logos, Sanat Kumara, is based. This is said to
be in Mongolia and Northern China. Mystics say that when Christ
Jesus was referring to God the Father he was in fact referring to
the entity Sanat Kumara, which apparently is being detected on
Satellite as present.
Religious wars in Hinduism are virtually unknown and the
understanding of the provisional nature of religious forms extends
to other creeds. Hindus see these as alternative paths leading to
the same peak. As Cross points out, to the eager followers of
other faiths this may appear as a mark of weakness or
indifference, but this is to misunderstand. He says it is a logical
outcome of Hindu metaphysics; all forms are provisional and
ultimately unreal, and this applies to all forms of religion as to
everything else. Even the Vedas themselves become valueless on
68

The New Idealism
the attainment of moksha or liberation of no more value than is a
well in a land which is flooded, as the Bhagavad Gita put it.
Another point that Cross stresses is that Hinduism differs from all
the religions in that there is no historic founder such as Jesus,
Mohammad or Buddha, and there is no fixed point in time at
which it can be said to begin. The ultimate aim of the individual
practitioner is openly defined as mystical transcendence, which
again stresses the philosophical Idealistic nature of the religion.
Against this mystical background, there are several interesting
and important overlays. It has developed for practical purposes a
vast pantheon of gods and populated the universe with an even
larger multitude of spirits and devils, which dwell in the realm of
super-energy, if these are to be put into physical terms. Of the
various deities, the two which stand supreme under Brahma,
Vishnu the Preserver and Shiva the Destroyer has drawn
similarities with the Chinese concept of Tao and the manifestation
of the complementary forces of yin and yang.
Fundamental to the practice of Hinduism are the interlocked
beliefs of karma and reincarnation, although liberation from these
is the goal of the Hindu, either through samsar and moksha,
which has a similar sense to nirvanna. The goal is to get off the
constant wheel of reincarnation. This can be achieved through
meditation or yoga and the right path (Dharma).
Chinese Philosophy
Chinese philosophy first surfaced in China between the 6th
and 3rd centuries BC. It was during this period which saw the
appearance of the two great traditions of Confucianism and
Taoism as well as the rich variety of thinkers known as the
69

The New Idealism
Hundred Schools. This period has often been described as the
Golden Age.
The main focus of philosophical concern was the Way (tao)
of a human in the natural world and in society. Basic
philosophical questions were sought such as what is the nature of
humanity and what kind of society corresponded to it. Chinese
philosophers believed that the ancients, blessed with sage rulers,
had lived according to the true way and it was their generation
which must rediscover it.30
Confucianism has at various times been described as a
philosophy and social system and at various times, different
scholars have emphasized other aspect of Confucianism in order
to define it more exactly and not all the main areas of the doctrine
derive from the sage Confucius 551-479 BC). The basic
philosophical composition is that at the beginning of time there
was a single cosmic cell containing ch’i which was made to
pulsate by the creative force of Tao. The cell subsequently split to
produce the yin/yang differentiation so pervasive in all branches
of’ Chinese thought.
It is generally thought that where Taoism holds that the Tao
represents the ultimate mystery, to Confucianism the nature of
Tao is that it is the rules of conduct, etiquett and ceremony, the
guide to all action. While Confucianism does not support any
belief in the survival of a soul it did amalgamate with elements
culled from the famous yin/yang school and other early beliefs in
30 A. Flew, A Dictionary of Philosophy, Pan Books, London, 1979,
page 60
70

The New Idealism
the framework of’ cosmology that made the human, natural, and
supernatural spheres.31
Neo-Confucianism was a movement which called for social
and political reform and moral regeneration of China. The
movement opposed Buddhism because of serious social and
political consequences. Neo-confucianists based their
metaphysical system on two classical works called “The Great
Learning” and “The Mean”. Their central concept of the Way is
the universal principle, immanent in all phenomena and did,
however, draw on Buddhism.
The great alternative in Chinese philosophy, Taoism, is now
widely followed around the world today, and is an extremely
important branch of the New Age movement. There are two main
branches of Taoism, one being esoteric and primarily monistic
while the other is populist and concentrates on the power which
may be achieved by those in harmony with the Tao.
The central core of Taoism is the achievement of the wu-wei,
a state of controlled abandonment similar to the Zen concept of
positive inaction. This goal is based on Lao Tzu’s statement, “The
way is to be”. The mystic Lao Tzu penned “The Book of The
Way”, a collection of 81 poems, which is now the fundamental
scripture of Taoism. The term Tao, although translated as “The
Way”, is usually understood to be the embodiment of three
aspects of mystical Chinese thought which has no real English
equivalent. It unifies the concepts of ultimate reality which is
inexpressible, ineffable and unimaginable. Also the concept of
universal energy that makes and maintains all manifestations and
31 E. Cambell and J.H. Brennan, The Acquarian Guide to the New Age,
page 287
71

The New Idealism
a wise order in an individual’s life, which harmonizes with the
universal whole.32
It is generally thought that Lao Tzu’s followers interpret “the
way to do is to be” as the need to achieve harmony with the
universal flow, which can then be followed by choosing any one
of an infinite number of directions. The poems celebrate The Way
of the primordial forces of nature, and a description of how the
sage identifies himself with them in this conduct.
Within Taoism, feminine receptivity and humility, and
qualities such as weakness, emptiness, uselessness and passivity
are highly praised. For those who cultivate these Taoist virtues
the immediate goal is physical survival, the “long life” which is
the central preoccupation of the Taoist. There are many various
yoga-like and even alchemical techniques which have been
directed towards the long life. Taoism attains to a spiritual
equanimity that transcends considerations of physical survival,
yet mysteriously guarantees immunity from physical as well as
metaphysical harm. In Taoist alchemy the individual will not
survive physical death unless s/he has taken the trouble to prepare
a “diamond” body as an immortal vehicle for the spirit, which
reinforces and strengthens during a person’s lifetime by a
mingling of make and female sexual potencies.
Ch’i is a universal energy generated by the sun and utilised
within the human body while manipulation of this energy forms
the basis of medical acupuncture and control of the energy is also
involved in Chinese yoga and some branches of the martial arts.
Ash and Hewitt claim that the concept of super energy can now
clearly explain what exactly ch’i energy is made from, and that in
32 Ibid, p. 28.
72

The New Idealism
fact Ch’i energy is nothing but low levels of super energy. Low
levels of super energy would be movement at a speed slightly
faster than that of light, and thus would just be out of the reach of
the human eye.
The Chinese say that Ch’i energy manifests in the
negative/positive polarities of yin/yang. Yin and Yang are two
great complementary principles on whose interaction the whole of
the manifest universe depends. Yin is defined as dark, negative
and passive while Yang is light, positive and active. The
Yin/Yang concept is a very practical aspect both in the divination
system of the I Ching. The I Ching is a process of divination and
has become one of the most widely studied branches of Chinese
esoteric practice. The I Ching is the sub division of phenomena
into negative and positive forces dating from the furtherest
reaches of prehistory. Traditionally, the oracle professes to read
the current state of ying and yang through the development of
six-lined figures known as hexagrams.33
The hexagrams have a disputed history because they sprang
from an ancient from of fortune telling called the Tortoise—Shell
Oracle. Tortoise-shells were heated until they cracked and the
patterns interpreted as indicators of the future of answers to
specific questions. Over time the cracks became stylized into
three-lined figures, known as trigrams, which were composed of
broken yin and unbroken yang lines. Eventually the trigram
patterns were studied and were divorced from the original
tortoise-shell rituals.34
33 Ibid, p. 176
34 Ibid, p. 289
73

The New Idealism
Just before 115OBC a provincial noble called Wen fell into
trouble with the Emperor and he was thrown into prison because
of Wen’s personal popularity. In prison he began to define
meanings to the trigrams already in wide use for divination and
his son, the Duke of Chou, added his own commentaries on the
individual line of’ the newly created hexagrams. The work known
as the “Changes of Chou” contains a total of 64 hexagrams, each
of which has a different interpretation.
Lines are only interpreted when it is thought they contain
such “tension” that they are about to change into their opposites
and once this happens, they produce a new hexagram which is
interpreted in context with the original and means that the oracle
is capable of delivering more than 4OOO answers without
repeating itself.
Neo-Taoism is an eclectic form of Taoism that flourished in
China about 375 AD and its exponents used the Lao-tzu and the I
Ching as a basis for discussing problems such as the relation
between being and non-being, and the nature of absolute
knowledge and communication.
Ideas were expressed in commentaries and in conversations
which blended metaphysics and sophistry.
Although some regarded Confucius as the supreme sage,
they claimed that spiritual detachment was compatible with a
career in public office and that human society was an extension of
the natural sphere. Many also claimed that true Taoist naturalism
implied aloofness from social or political involvement, and these
withdrew into individualistic seclusion.35
35 A. Flew, Dictionary of Philosophy, page 245
74

The New Idealism
Chinese philosophy has been both deeply influenced by
Buddhism, but all the major strands from Buddhism,
Confucianism and Taoism have stressed philosophical Idealism as
their starting premise on how the universe should be viewed.
Fritjof Capra has written eloquently about the similarity of
Chinese philosophy as the developments of the New Physics.
Capra has written that the most important characteristic of
Chinese philosophy – or the essence of it – is the awareness of the
unity and mutual interrelation of al1 things and events, the
experience of all phenomena in the world as manifestations of a
basic oneness. All things are seen as interdependent and
inseparable parts of this cosmic whole; as different manifestations
of the ultimate reality. He says that this is very similar to the
Taoist notion and that the basic oneness of the universe is not
only the central characteristic of Taoism, but that of modern
physics. He says the idea of “participation instead of observation”
has been formulated in modern physics only recently, but it is a
notion well known in Taoism, where subject and object fuse into
a unified whole.
The Occult and Esoteluc Aspect of the New Age
The Eastern philosophies of mind and spirit, which represent
a form of philosophical Idealism, have undoubtedly received a
great deal of critical attention in the Western World, yet during
the 1960s the West also had its mystical counterparts in such
systems of thought as the Tarot and Qabalah. The Tarot has been
seen as a “means of divination” through card interpretation, and
also as a key to the symbolic processes of the unconscious mind.
75

The New Idealism
The Qabalah became popular in England and the United
States through the work of occultists such as Israel Regardie. The
heritage of the Qabalah dates back to biblical interpretations and
is based on the belief that it was first taught to Adam in the
Garden of Eden by the archangel Gabriel and passed on. It lies at
the heart of Jewish mystical and magical traditions. Qabalists
believe that the essence of God consisting of 19 interlinking states
or spheres of activity, called Sephiroth. In modern practice, the
establishment of the Golden Dawn, an occult organisation
founded in the latter half of the 19th century, made the Qabalah a
pivotal point of the entire Western Esoteric Tradition. Many of
the practices of Qabalah involve meditation and pathworking.
Pathworking has been described as a “journey between this side
of the mental worlds and the other side… which offers a path, a
map through the landscapes of the mind.”36
The Qabalah remained a strictly oral tradition until the late
13th century, and, about 1280 AD, a Spanish Qabalist called
Moses ben Shemtob de Leon wrote a book called “The Book of
Splendours” which departed from orthodox Judaism. It taught that
the ultimate Godhead is a limitless undifferentiated being beyond
all description or speculation, similar to Brahman of the Hindus.37
The esoteric tradition of the New Age is now attracting
worldwide attention from many avenues.
Most major civilisations have had a tradition of an esoteric
science in their culture. Being esoteric, it was hidden from the
mainstream of the people but used by those initiated into its
36 E. Campbell and J.H. Brennan, The Acquanan Guide to the New Age,
p 236
37 ibid, p. 250
76

The New Idealism
secrets in a very practical say. And despite the diversity of
cultures, there is a remarkable agreement on basic structures.
Furthermore, and even more remarkable, these principles relate to
the concepts now being put forward by the modern physicists.
In the esoteric lore of the Ancient Egyptians, Chinese and Greeks,
the Indians of North America and the Incas of the South
American continent, the Polynesian Kahunas and Filipino healers,
the Vedic seers of India, the early Christian and the alchemist of
Europe, there is this re-occurring vision. In its nature it is esoteric
but still used in a very practical way. They all saw the physical
body of humans as being the end result of a series of interrelated
and interdependent subtle levels of consciousness. All of these
esotericists saw that consciousness was first and foremost the
basic substance of the universe and it is this tradition which has
continued through until present day.
At the heart of the modern day movement in esotericism is
the Theosophical Society. The society was founded by Helena
Blavatsky, who in 1877, wrote a two-volumed work called Isis
Unveiled. The book, like her later work The Secret Doctrine, was
written against the background of Blavatsky’s position as head of
the Theosophical Society, established two years earlier. In her
works she outlines many subjects in detail from the lost
civilisations of Atlantis and Lumeria to the notion of the Secret
Masters, or Ascended Masters.
The Ascended Masters were said to watch over the welfare
of humanity. These Masters were described by Blavatsky as
superhuman beings with mystic powers hidden in the Himalayian
vastness of Tibet. Since the publication of Blavatsky’s work a
great deal has subsequently been published about these Ascended
77

The New Idealism
Masters, literally thousands of books and journals during the 20th
century.
Many people claim they actually “channel” information from
these Ascended Masters. There is a consistent and common
thread in the information: that the Ascended Masters form the
Spiritual Hierarchy of the planet and work under the One Master,
Lord Maitreya, the Master of Masters, The Christ. In the esoteric
tradition it is said that Lord Maitreya was the entity that
“overshadowed” Jesus the man more than 2000 years ago. The
head of the Spiritual Hierarchy is said to be Shamballa, where
Sanat Kumura exists, the Lord of our world.
All of the teachings of the Ascended Masters and the
Spiritual Hierarchy address the oneness and common bond of all
religions and faiths. Historically, Lord Maitreya is said to have
also manifested in the form of Kirshna. All of the teachings of the
Hierarchy say that a massive civilisation called Atlantis existed
before the present civilisation. The Veedic Bhagavad Gita is
regarded as a document which describes this civilisation and its
final days when a massive war wiped out its entire structure. The
bible also refers to this war with the Great Flood.
Many New Age people say that the ruins in Egypt and South
America are in fact evidence of the lost civilisations of Atlantis
because these regions were in fact “outposts” of the Atlantean
civilisation. Esoterically, when Atlantis was destroyed during a
vast war legend has it that humanity was mutated from 12 strands
of DNA to our current two strands. Christ is said to have had 12
disciples to signify an eventual return to 12 strand of DNA. Also
during Atlantean times the human life span was far greater than
our present one, again, a claim which is well documented in the
Bible.
78

The New Idealism
The concept of reincarnation was introduced by humanity
therefore, to live out our mutancy. The Spiritual Hierarchy
throughout the thousands of years sent forth evolved beings to
guide humanity back towards the path – that is, the path of
Godhood, of the realisation that matter is nothing but spirit.
The return of Christ has been well forecast by prophets and
sages but many New Age channellers say it is occurring. The
Theosophical Society thought that the Indian Guru Krishnamurti
was to be the returned Christ and was to be groomed as the next
incarnation of Lord Maitreya, the new World Teacher. His own
mystical organisation, the Order of the Star of the East, was
established for him and, as a teenage guru he quickly attracted
thousands of followers. However, Krishnamurti rejected all such
claims.
However, many New Age followers fully believe in the
teachings of esotericism. A worldwide magazine called The
Emergence is published to focus attention on the return of Christ,
or Lord Maitreya. It is said that his mission is to get rid of poverty
and capitalism and the organs that promote disasters, such as the
World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Many eastern
religious organisations are also closely working with this notion,
such as the Satchinanda Yoga Movement.
All of these major movements see Consciousness as the
Godhead principle and is thus enforcing the notion of
philosophical Idealism. Esotericists see matter as being the result
of Consciousness, almost in an identical way that Hinduism,
Buddhism and Taoism would view the process.
79

Earth History: From 35 Million Years to 900,000 Years BC
26 MY BC
18 MY BC
8 MY BC
6 MY BC
4 MY BC
2 MY BC
1 MY BC
900,000 BC
50,000 BC
25,000 BC
Dinoid/Reptoid alien invasion of earth
Rise of pre-cetacean (dolphin/whales)
Destruction of Reptoid alien control of Earth
Earth recovering from Reptoid aLien attack
Galactic Federation formed after humans developed 5-7
million Before Christ and developed to high sentient
level setting up huamn civilizations over the galaxy
First Human Hybornea Civilization founded
Hybornea destroyed about
Lemuria founded
Lemuria destroyed 50,000 years BC
Atlantis destroyed 25,000 years BC
MY BC= Million Years Before Christ
80

The New Idealism
CHAPTER 2
JUSTIFYING THE NEW IDEALISM:
What is the relevance of the New Idealism?
T
T
his section will examine some of the major philosophical
shifts that involve the New Idealism. The way I will do this
is to compare and examine some of the old mechanistic ways of
thinking with the systems of thinking that have developed
because of the New Physics as well as some of the organic
philosophies which have developed from.
The major justification of the New Idealism comes from the
key philosophical difference of materialism and Idealism itself.
To consider these differences it is necessary to go back to the
foundations of science.
The rise of Materialism
Science developed 2,500 years ago in the first period of
Greek philosophy. The sages of the Milesian school in Ionia were
not concerned with such distinctions between science, philosophy
and religion and their aim was to find the essential nature of
matter. The term “physics” is derived from the Greek work
“physis”, which originally meant seeing the essential nature of all
things.
The philosophy of the Milesian school had a strong mystical
flavour. The Milesians were called “hylozoists”, or “those who
81

The New Idealism
think matter is alive”, by the later Greeks, because they saw no
distinction between animate and inanimate, spirit and matter. The
Milesians did not even have a word for matter because they saw
all forms of existence as manifestations of the “physis”, endowed
with life and spirituality. Fritjof Capra writes that because of this
Thales declared all things to be the gods and Anaximander saw
the universe as a kind of organism which was supported by
“pneuma”, the cosmic breath, in the same way the human body is
supported by air.
Capra says that the monistic and organic view of the
Milesians was very close to that of ancient Indian and Chinese
philosophy. The parallels to Eastern thought are even stronger in
the philosophy of Heraclitus of Ephesus. Heraclitus saw the world
as being in a state of perpetual change, or eternal “Becoming”.
This Greek philosopher saw all static being as based on deception
and his universal principle was fire, which represented a symbol
for the continuous flow and change of all things. All changes in
the world, according to Heraclitus, arise from the dynamic and
cyclic interlay of opposites and that any pair of opposites were
seen as a unity, which contains and transcends all opposing
forces, called the Logos.
The split in this unity, writes Capra, began with the Eleatic
school, which assumed a Divine Principle standing above all gods
and men. This was first identified with the unity of the universe,
but was later seen as an intelligent and personal God who stands
above the world and directs it. This is an extremely important
notion because this began a trend of thought which led,
ultimately, to the separation of spirit and matter and to dualism
which became characteristic of Western philosophy and which
also became the benchmark of philosophical materialism.
82

The New Idealism
Capra writes that a drastic step in this direction was taken by
Parmenides of Elea who was in strong opposition to Heraclitus.
Parmenides called his principles the Being and held that it was
unique and invariable. Change was impossible while the concept
of an indestructible substance as the subject of varying properties
grew out of this philosophy and became one of the fundamental
concepts of Western thought. In the fifth century B.C., the Greek
philosophers tried to overcome the sharp contrast between the
views of Parmenides and Heraclitus. Capra writes that in order to
reconcile the idea of unchangeable Being of Parmenides with that
of eternal Becoming of Heraclitus, they assumed that the Being is
manifest in certain invariable substances, the mixture and
separation of which gives rise to the changes in the world and led
to the concept of the atom, the smallest indivisible unit of matter,
which found its clearest expression in the philosophy of
Leucippus and Democritus. The Greek atomists, writes Capra,
drew a clear line between spirit and matter as being of several
“basic building blocks”. These were purely passive and
intrinsically dead particles moving in the void while the cause of
their motion was not explained, but was often associated with
eternal forces which were assumed to be of spiritual origin and
fundamentally different from matter. Capra writes that in
subsequent centuries this image became an essential element of
Western thought, of the dualism between mind and matter,
between body and soul.
As the idea of a division between spirit and matter took hold,
the philosophers turned their attention to the spiritual world,
rather than the material, to the human soul and the problems of
ethics and that these questions were to occupy Western thought
for more than 2000 years after the culmination of Greek science
83

The New Idealism
and culture in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. Further, the
scientific knowledge of antiquity was systematised and organised
by Aristotle, who created the scheme which was to be the basis of
the Western view of the universe for 2000 years.
Aristotle himself believed that questions concerning the
human soul and the contemplation of God’s perfection were much
more valuable than investigations of the material world, and led
to the strong hold of the Christian Church which supported
Aristotle’s doctrines throughout the Middle Ages.
The world, then became a material world. All matter had no
spirit and was intrinsically lifeless. The Renaissance saw further
development of Western science when they began to free
themselves from the influence of Aristotle and the Church
showed a new interest in nature. There was also a growing
interest in mathematics, which led to the formation of proper
scientific theories, based on experiment. Capra writes that the
birth of modern science was preceded and accompanied by a
development of philosophical thought which furthered this notion
of spirit/matter dualism, and enhanced the notion of materialism
in our world.
The rise of the Newtonian Cartesian world machine has
already been examined. Now an examination of the major areas
of society will be undertaken to further show the impact of the
New Idealism – of how the New Physics drastically alters this
materialism which has been embedded in our thought since the
Greeks through to the major philosophical formulations of the
Cartesian-Newtonian world-machine.
It will become clear that the structures and foundations of
modern society have been embedded in materialism. The New
Physics clearly shows that this form of materialism has been
84

The New Idealism
scientifically disproved. In all areas of human and philosophical
endeavour the New Physics will intrude, from biology, ecology,
economics to health and psychology. Every region of thought will
be affected by the notion that matter is very much alive, that
matter is part of mind – which is what science and Eastern
thought is telling us.
The passage to the solar age
James Lovelock, a chemist, was the first scientist to discuss
the Gaio hypothesis, which recognises a renaissance of a
powerful ancient myth and claims that the planet as a whole can
be regarded as a single living organism. Fritjof Capra says that
the planet is not only teeming with life but seems to be a living
being in its own right. “All living matter on earth, together with
the atmosphere, oceans, the soil, forms a complex system that has
all the characteristic patterns of self-organisation,” writes Capra.
He says that similar patterns of self-regulation can be observed
for other environmental properties, such as the chemical
composition of the atmosphere, the salt content of the oceans, and
the distribution of trace elements among plants and animals and
all theses are regulated by intricate cooperative networks that
exhibit the properties of self-organising systems. “The earth, then,
is a living system; it functions not just like an organism but
actually seems to be an organism – Gaia, a living planetary
being,” writes Capra.38 He extends this view to define “mind” as
a systems phenomenon characteristic of living organisms. Mind
has the characteristics of self-organising systems and shares the
38 F. Capra, The Turning Point, page 308
85

The New Idealism
essential properties of living systems. Capra says that both life
and mind are manifestations of the same set of systemic
properties and the description of mind as a pattern of
organisation, or set of dynamic relationships, is related to the
description of matter in modern physics. “Mind and matter no
longer appear to belong to two fundamentally separate categories,
as Descaretes believed, but can be seen to represent merely
different aspects of the same universal process,” writes Capra. He
says that the fact that the living world is organised in
multi-levelled structures means that there are also levels of mind
and that such a notion of mind as a multi-levelled phenomenon,
of which we are only partly aware in ordinary states of
unconsciousness, is widespread in many non-western cultures.
Capra says that in the stratified order of nature, individual human
minds are embedded in the larger minds of social and ecological
systems, and these are integrated into the planetary mental system
– the mind of Gaia – which in turn must participate in some kind
of universal or cosmic mind. Capra says that the conceptual
framework of the new systems approach is in no way restricted by
associating this cosmic mind with the traditional idea of God.
God is not the creator – but the mind of the universe. “In this
view the deity is, of course, neither male nor female, nor manifest
in any personal form, but represents nothing less than the
self-organising dynamics of the entire cosmos,” writes Capra
39Capra says that out of all this the nature of consciousness is
fundamental existential question. He says that most theories about
the nature of consciousness seem to be variations on either of two
opposing views that may nevertheless be complementary and
86

The New Idealism
reconcilable in the systems approach. The first one is the Western
scientific view. This considers matter as primary and
consciousness as a property of complex material patterns that
emerges at a certain stage of biological evolution. Capra says the
other view of consciousness may be called the mystical view,
since it is generally held in mystical traditions. This type of
consciousness holds that the primary reality and ground of all
being is consciousness. “In its purest form, consciousness,
according to this view, is non-material, formless and void of all
content,” writes Capra. 40 He says that this form of pure
consciousness is associated with the Divine in many spiritual
traditions and is in all things. “All forms of matter and all living
beings are seen as patterns of divine consciousness,” writes
Capra.41 He says the systems view agrees with the conventional
scientific view that consciousness is a manifestation of complex
material patterns. He says it is a manifestation of living systems
of a certain complexity. On the other hand, the biological
structures of these systems are expressions of underlying
processes that represent the system’s self-organisation, and hence
its mind. “In this sense material structures are no longer
considered the primary reality. Extending this way of thinking to
the universe as a whole, it is not too far-fetched to assume that all
its structures – from subatomic particles to galaxies and from
bacteria to human beings – are manifestations of the universe’s
self-organising dynamics, which has been identified with the
cosmic mind,” writes Capra.42 He says, however, that this is
40 ibid, page 328
41 ibid
42 ibid, page 324
87

The New Idealism
almost the mystical view, with the only difference being that
mystics emphasis the direct experience of cosmic consciousness
that goes beyond the scientific approach. “The systems view of
nature at last seems to provide a meaningful scientific framework
for approaching the age-old questions of the nature of life, mind,
consciousness, and matter,” writes Capra.43
Comparisons of the New Idealism and materialism
The mechanistic Cartesian world view, says Capra, has had a
powerful influence on all our sciences and on the general Western
way of thinking. He says that the method of reducing complex
phenomena to basic building blocks, and of looking for the
mechanisms through which they interact, has become so deeply
ingrained in our cultures that it has often been identified with the
scientific method. He says that views, concepts, or ideas that did
not fit into the framework of classical science were not taken
seriously and were generally distained, if not ridiculed. As a
consequence of this overwhelming emphasis on reductionist
science our culture has become progressively fragmented and has
developed technologies, institutions, and lifestyles that are
profoundly unhealthy.
He says the new vision of reality is based on an awareness of
the essential interrelatedness and interdependence of all
phenomena – physical, biological, psychological, social and
cultural. This transcends current disciplinary and conceptual
boundaries and will be pursued within new institutions. He says at
present there is no well-established framework, either conceptual
43 ibid
88

The New Idealism
or institutional, that would accommodate the formulation of a
new paradigm, but the outlines of such a framework are already
being shaped by many individuals, communities, and networks
that are developing new ways of thinking and organising
themselves according to new principles. In this situation it would
seem that a bootstrap approach similar to the one that
contemporary physics has developed, would be most fruitful, says
Capra.
Capra says there are a number of fundamental differences
between the new systems theory of evolution and the classical
neo-Darwinian theory. He says that the classical theory sees
evolution as moving towards an equilibrium state, with organisms
adapting themselves ever more perfectly to their environment.
But according to the systems view, evolution operates far from
equilibrium and unfolds through an interplay of adaptation and
creation. “Moreover, the systems theory takes into account that
the environment is, itself, a living system capable of adaptation
and evolution. Thus the focus shifts from the evolution of an
organism to the co-evolution of organism plus environment,”
writes Capra.44
In classical science, Capra again stresses, nature was seen as
a mechanical system composed of basic building blocks. Darwin,
he says, proposed a theory of evolution in which the unit of
survival was the species, the subspecies, or some other building
block of the biological world. However, he says that a century
later it has become quite clear that the unit of survival is not any
of these entities. Capra says that what survives is the
organism-in-its-environment and that an organism that thinks
44 ibid, page 311
89

The New Idealism
only in terms of its own survival will invariable destroy its
environment, and, as we are learning from bitter experience, will
thus destroy itself.
Capra uses the work of Gregory Bateson to highlight the
idealistic side of the systems theory. He says that Bateson
proposed to define mind as a systems phenomenon characteristic
of living organisms, societies, and ecosystems and lists a set of
criteria which systems have to satisfy for mind to occur. Capra
points out that any system that satisfies those criteria will be able
to process information and develop the phenomena we associate
with mind – thinking, learning, memory for example. Capra says
that Bateson is of the view that mind is a necessary and inevitable
consequence of a certain complexity which begins long before
organisms develop a brain and a higher nervous system.
He says that Bateson’s criteria for mind turn out to be closely
related to those characteristics of self-organising systems and that
mind is an essential property of living systems, that “mind is the
essence of being alive.” Capra says that from the systems point of
view, life is not a substance or a force, and mind is not an entity
interacting with matter. He says that life and mind are
manifestations of the same set of systemic properties, a set of
processes that represent the dynamics of self-organisation and this
has tremendous value in our attempts to overcome the Cartesian
division. The description of mind as a pattern of organisation, or a
set of dynamic relationships, is related to the description of matter
in modern physics, says Capra. “mind and matter no longer
appear to belong to two fundamentally separate categories, as
90

The New Idealism
Descartes believed, but can be seen to represent merely different
aspects of the same universal process,” writes Capra.45
This is an important part if Capra’s argument. He says that in
our interactions with our environment there is a continual
interplay and mutual influence between the outer world and the
inner world. He says the patterns we perceive around us are based
in a very fundamental way on the patterns within. “Patterns of
matter mirror patterns of mind, coloured by subjective feelings
and values,” writes Capra profoundly, leading right to the heart of
his idealist stance.46 He says that in the traditional Cartesian view
it was assumed that every individual has basically the same
biological apparatus and that each of us, therefore, had access to
the same “screen” of sensory perception. The differences were
assumed to arise from the subjective interpretation of the sensory
data and were due, in the well-known Cartesian metaphor, to the
“little man looking at the screen”. Capra says that recent
neuro-physiological studies have shown that this is not so and the
modification of sensory perception by past experiences,
expectations, and purposes occurs no only in the interpretation
but begins at the very outset, at the “gates of perception”.
Capra says the importance of frequencies in perception have
been emphasised through the development of the holographic
model of the brain in which visual perception is carried out
through an analysis of frequency patterns and visual memory is
organised like a hologram. He says there is an intriguing aspect of
the holographic metaphor in relation to two ideas in modern
physics. One of them is Geoffrey Chew’s idea of subatomic
45 ibid, page 315
46 ibid, page 316
91

The New Idealism
particles being dynamically composed of one another in such a
way that each of them involves all the others. The other idea is
that of the well-known physicist David Bohm, often considered a
master of the New Physics, with his notion of the implicate order.
Capra says that Bohm’s theory says that all of reality is
enfolded in each of its parts. “What all these approaches have in
common is the idea that holonomy – the whole being somehow
contained in each of its parts – may be a universal property of
nature. This idea has also been expressed in many mystical
traditions and seems to play an important role in mystical visions
of reality,” Capra writes.47 He says that the universe is definitely
not a hologram, but it displays a multitude of vibrations of
different frequencies, and thus the hologram may often be useful
as an analogy to describe phenomena associated with these
vibratory patterns.
Health, Psychology and the New Idealism
An area where the New Physics and the New Idealism is
fully expounded is in the area of health. Capra says that to
develop a holistic approach to health that will be consistent with
the New Physics and the systems view of living organisms, we do
not need to break completely fresh ground but can learn from
medical models existing in other cultures. He again repeats that
modern scientific thought — physics, biology, and psychology
and is leading to a view of reality that comes very close to the
views of mystics and of many traditional cultures, in which
knowledge of the human mind and body and the practice of
47 ibid, page 328
92

The New Idealism
healing are integral parts of natural philosophy and of spiritual
discipline. “A holistic approach to health and healing will
therefore be in harmony with many traditional views, as well as
consistent with modern scientific theories,” writes Capra.48
Capra says that Eastern philosophy and Eastern medicine as
practised throughout India and China is quite different from that
in the West. He says that in western medicine the doctor with the
highest reputation is a specialist who has detailed knowledge
about a specific part of the body. In Chinese medicine the ideal
doctor is a sage who knows how all the patterns of the universe
work together, who treats a patient on an individual basis and
whose diagnosis does not categorize the patient as having a
specific disease but records as fully as possible the individual’s
total state of mind and body and its relation to the natural and
social environment.
Health care in Europe and North America, says Capra, is
practiced by a large number of people and organizations,
including physicians, nurses, psychotherapists, psychiatrists,
public-health professionals, social workers, chiropractors,
homeopaths and various “holistic” practitioners. He says that for
the past three hundred years our culture has been dominated by
the view of the human body as a machine, to be analyzed in terms
of its parts. The mind is separated from the body, disease is seen
as a malfunctioning of biological mechanism, and health is
defined as the absence of disease.
Capra says that to single out any disorder as psychologically
caused would be a reductionist as the belief that there are purely
organic diseases without any psychological components. He says
48 ibid, page 333
93

The New Idealism
that mental illnesses involve physical symptoms and that the
origins and development of many mental illnesses depend
crucially on the individual’s ability to interact with their family,
friends and other social groups. Capra says that the idea of the
mind controlling the body is based on the Cartesian division and
that in the systems view of health, every illness is in essence a
mental phenomenon, and in many cases the process of getting
sick is reversed most effectively through an approach that
integrates both physical and psychological therapies.
Capra points out that Carl Gustav Jung was perhaps the first
to extend classical psychology into new realms in breaking with
Freud and abandoning the Newtonian models of psychoanalysis.
Capra says that Jung developed a number of concepts that are
quite consistent with those of modern physics and with systems
theory. Capra says that many of the differences between Freud
and Jung parallel those between classical and modern physics,
between the mechanistic and the holistic paradigm.
Freud’s theory of the mind, says Capra, was based on the
concept of the human organism as a complex ‘biological machine
and that psychological processes were deeply rooted in the body’s
physiology arid biochemistry, and followed the principles of
Newtonian mechanics. “While Freud’s views about the detailed
dynamics of these phenomena changed over time, he never
abandoned the basic, Cartesian orientation of his theory,” writes
Capra49. On the other hand, Jung was not so much interested in
explaining psychological phenomena in terms of specific
mechanisms, but rather attempted to understand the psyche in its
49 ibid, page328
94

The New Idealism
totality and was particularly concerned with its relations to the
wider environment.
Jung saw the psyche as a self-regulating dynamic system,
characterized by fluctuations between opposite poles. Capra says
that Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious distinguishes his
psychology not only from Freud’s but all others. He says it
implies a link between the individual and humanity as a whole in
fact, in some sense, between the individual and the entire
cosmos – that cannot be understood within a mechanistic
framework but is very, consistent with the systems view of mind.
Capra says that by the mid-1960s it was commonly understood
that the central emphasis of humanistic psychology was
concerned with the spiritual, transcendental, or mystical aspects
of self-actualization. He says after several conceptual discussions
the leaders of this movement gave it the name transpersonal
psychology, a term coined by Abraham Maslow and Stanislav
Grof. Transpersonal psychology is concerned, directly or
indirectly, with the recognition, understanding, and realization of
non-ordinary, mystical, or “transpersonal” states of
consciousness, and with the psychological conditions that
represent barriers to such transpersonal realizations. “Its concerns
are thus very close to those of spiritual traditions, and, indeed, a
number of transpersonal psychologists are working on conceptual
systems intended to bridge and integrate psychology and the
spiritual quest,” says Capra 50 . He says they have placed
themselves in a position that differs radically from that of post
major schools of Western psychology, which have tended to
regard any form of religion or spiritual as based on primitive
50 ibid, page 405
95

The New Idealism
superstition, pathological aberration, or shared delusions about
reality inculcated by the family system and the culture. He says
the notable exception of course, was Jung, who acknowledged
spirituality as an integral aspect of’ human nature and a vital force
in human life.
Capra says the new psychology sees the, human .organism as
an integrated whole involving interdependent physical and
psychological pattern. He says that although psychologists and
psychotherapists deal predominantly with mental phenomena,
they must insist that these can be understood only within the
context of the whole mind/body system. Also, the conceptual
basis of psychology must also be consistent with that of biology.
Capra says that in classical science the Cartesian framework
made’ if difficult for psychologists and biologists to
communicate, and it seemed they could’ not learn much from
each other and there were similar barriers between
psychotherapists and physicians. “But the systems approach
provides a common framework for understanding the biological
and psychological manifestations of human organisms in health
and illness, one that is likely to lead to mutually stimulating
exchanges between biologists and psychologists,” says Capra51
also says it means that if this is the time for physicians to take a
closer look at the psychological aspects of illness, it is also time
for psychotherapists to increase their knowledge of human
biology.
Capra says that one of the most exciting developments in
contemporary psychology is an adaption of the bootstrap
approach to the understanding of the human psyche. He says that
51 ibid, page 407
96

The New Idealism
in the past, schools of psychology proposed ‘personality theories
and systems of therapy that differed radically in their views of
how the human mind functions in health and illness’. He says that
these schools typically limited themselves to a narrow range of
psychological phenomena sexuality, the birth trauma, existential
problems and family dynamics. Capra says that a number of
psychologists are now pointing out that none of these approaches
is wrong, but that each of them focuses on some part of a whole
spectrum of consciousness and then attempts to generalize its
understanding of that approach to the entire psyche. He says one
of the most comprehensive systems to integrate different
psychological schools is the spectrum psychology proposed by
Ken Wilber. He says this unifies numerous approaches, both
Western and Eastern, into a spectrum of psychological models
and theories that reflects the spectrum of human consciousness.
Each of the levels, or bands, of this spectrum is characterized by a
different sense of identity, ranging from the supreme identity of
cosmic consciousness to the drastically narrowed identity of the
ego,” writes Capra.52
Capra says that at the ego level one does not identify with the
total organism, but only with the mental representation of the
organism, known as the self—image or ego. He says this
disembodied self is thought to exist within the body, and thus
people would say, “I have a body,” rather than “I am a body”.
Under certain circumstances such a fragmented experience of
oneself may be further distorted by the alienation of certain facets
of the ego, which may be repressed or projected onto other people
52 ibid, page 408
97

The New Idealism
or the environment and that the dynamics of these phenomena are
described in great detail in Freudian psychology.
Capra says the bootstrap and systems approach to
psychology includes a conception of mental illness in a new way.
He says that like all illness, mental illness is seen as a
multidimensional phenomenon involving interdependent physical,
psychological and social aspects. Most current psychiatric
treatments, says Capra, deal with the biomedical mechanisms
associated with a specific mental disorder and, in so doing, have
been very successful in suppressing symptoms with
psychoactive-drugs. This approach, says Capra, has not helped
psychiatrists understand mental illness any better, nor has it
allowed their patients to solve the underlying problems. Capra
says that in view of these shortcomings of the biomedical
approach over the past twenty-five years a number of
psychiatrists and psychologists have developed a systemic view
of psychotic disorders that take into account the multiple facets of
mental illness.
This view is both social and existential. Failure to evaluate
one’s perception and experience of reality and to integrate them
into a coherent world view seems to be central to serious mental
illness, says Capra. He says that in current psychiatric practice
many people are diagnosed as psychotics, not on the basis of their
behaviour but rather on the basis of the content of their
experiences. He says these experiences, typically, are of a
“transpersonal” nature and in sharp contradiction to all common
sense and to the classical Western view. “However, many of them
are well known to mystics, occur frequently in deep meditation,
and can also be induced quite easily by various other methods,”
98

The New Idealism
writes Capra.53 He says the new definition of what is normal and
what is pathological, is not based on the content and nature of
one’s experiences, but, rather on the way in which they are
handled and on the degree to which a person is able to integrate
these unusual experiences into his life.
The inability of some people to integrate transpersonal
experiences is often aggravated by a hostile environment, says.
Capra. He says the central characteristic in the communication
patterns of families of diagnosed schizophrenics was identified by
Gregory Bateson as a “double bind” situation. Bateson found that
the behaviour labeled schizophrenic represents a special strategy
which a person invents in order to live in an unlivable situation.
Such a person writes Capra, “finds himself facing a situation
within his family that seems to put him into an untenable position,
a situation in which he ‘can’t win,’ no matter what he does,”
writes Capra. 54 He says that when these situations occur
repeatedly the double-bind structure may become a habitual
expectation and this is likely to generate schizophrenic
experiences and behavior. This does not mean that everyone
becomes schizophrenic in such a situation, writes Capra, and that
what exactly makes one person psychotic while another remains
normal under the same external circumstances is a complex
question, likely to involve biochemical and genetic factors that
are not yet well understood. Capra articulates the thought of R. D.
Laing on the area. He points out that Laing says that the strategy
designed by a so-called schizophrenic can often be recognised as
an appropriate response to severe social stress, representing the
53 ibid, page 417
54 ibid, page 419
99

The New Idealism
person’s desperate efforts to maintain his integrity in the face if
paradoxical and contradictory pressures. This observation is
extended by Laing to an eloquent critique of society as a whole,
in which he sees the conditions of alienation, of being asleep,
unconscious, “out of one’s mind”, as the condition of the normal
person. Capra says that such “normally” alienated men and
women are taken to be sane simply because they act more or less
like anyone else whereas other forms of alienation, which are out
of step with the prevailing one, are labeled psychotic by the
“normal” majority.
Capra says that in our culture the criteria used to define
mental health – sense of identity, image, recognition of time and
space, perception of the environment – require that a person’s
perceptions and views be compatible with the
Cartesian-Newtonian framework. He, says, the Cartesian world
view is not merely the principle frame of reference but is regarded
as the only accurate description of reality. Capra says that a
person functioning exclusively in the Cartesian mode may be free
from manifest symptoms but cannot be considered mentally
healthy.
The New Idealism and Economics
Part of Capra’s philosophy looks deeply at the evolution of
economic patterns. He says that present-day economics is
characterized by the fragmentary and reductionist approach that
typifies most social sciences and claims that economists
general1y fail to recognize that the economy is merely one aspect
of a whole ecological and social fabric, namely a living system
composed of human beings in continual interaction with one
100

The New Idealism
another and with their natural resources, most of which are, in
turn, living organisms. He says the basic error of the social
sciences is to divide this fabric into fragments, assumed to be
independent and to be dealt with in separate academic
departments. These fragmentary approaches are also reflected in
government, in the split between social and economic policies
and, especially in the United States, in a maze of congressional
committees and subcommittees where these policies are
discussed.
Capra outlines Marxist economics and points out that Marx
recognized that capitalist forms of social organization would
steed the process of technological innovation and increase
material productivity and that he was able to see phenomena like
monopolies and depressions and to predict that capitalism would
foster socialism. He points out that Marx warned that along with
the constantly diminishing number of the magnates of capital,
who usurp and monopolize all advantages, grows the mass of
misery, oppression, degradation arid exploitation.
Capra says that today, in the context of our crisis-ridden,
corporate-dominated global economy with its mega risk
technologies and its enormous social and ecological costs, this
statement has lost none of its power. Capra says that it is
generally pointed out by Marx’s critics that the labour force in the
United States, which one would have expected to be the first to
organize politically and rise up to create a socialist society, failed
to do so because workers received high enough wages to begin
identifying with the upward mobility of the middle class. Capra
says that on most situations it was true that American workers had
not been continually immiserated but had ridden the escalator of
101

The New Idealism
material wealth, although a relatively low levels and with much
struggle.
Another important point, says Capra, is that in the late
twentieth century the Third World has taken on the role of the
proletariat because of the development of multinational
corporations, which Marx did not foretell. i.e. He says that today
these multinationals play off workers in one country against those
in another, exploiting racism, sexism, and nationalism and that
advantages won by American workers are generally to the
detriment of those in Third world countries.
Capra points out that Marx emphasized the importance of
nature in the social and economic fabric throughout his writings,
but it was not the central issue for an activist of the day. Although
Marx did not strongly emphasize ecological concerns, his
approach could have been used to predict the ecological
exploitation that capitalism produced and socialism perpetuated.
Contemporary economics, says Capra, is a mixed bag of
concepts theories, and models stemming from various epochs of
economic history. He says the main schools of thought that have
emerged are the Marxist school and “mixed” economics, a
modern version of neoclassical economics using more
sophisticated mathematical techniques but still based on classical
notions. In the late 1930s and the 1940s a new
“neoclassical-Keynesian synthesis” was proclaimed, but such a
synthesis actually never took place, Capra points out.
Capra says that all the models and theories Marxist as well
as non-Marxist – are still deeply rooted in the Cartesian paradigm,
and thus inappropriate to describe today’s closely inter-related
and continually changing global economic system. He says that
one of the outstanding characteristics of today’s economics, both
102

The New Idealism
capitalist and communist (this, course, would virtually only be
China), is an obsession with growth. He says that economic and
technological growth are seen as essential by virtually all
economists and politicians, although it should be abundantly clear
that unlimited expansion in a finite environment can only lead to
disaster. Capra says the belief in the necessity of continuing
growth is a consequence of over-emphasis on yang values –
expansion, self-assertion, competition – and can also be related to
the Newtonian notions of absolute, infinite space and time. He
says this is a reflection of linear thinking.
Capra says the world population crisis is a direct problem of
the idea of continuing economic growth and that ecological
balance could combat this. Capra also says that the problem is
that wealth is so badly distributed globally, and much of it is
wasted and that five per cent of the world’s population now
consumes a third of its resources, with energy consumption per
capita about twice as high as in most European countries.
Capra says that economic growth, in our culture, is
inextricably linked with technological growth and that the
ultimate manifestation of our obsession with high technology is
the widely entertained fantasy that our current problems can be
solved by creating artificial habitats in outer space. He says that
technological growth is not only regarded as the ultimate problem
solver but is also seen as determining our lifestyles, our social
organizations, and our value system such “technological
determinism”, he says, seems to be the consequence of the high
status of science in our public life.
The third aspect of undifferentiated growth is the growth of
institutions, says Capra – from companies and corporations to
colleges and universities, churches, cities, governments, and
103

The New Idealism
nations. He says one of the most dangerous manifestations of
institutional growth today is that of corporations while the largest
of them have now transcended national boundaries and have
become major actors on the global stage. He says that corporate
power permeates virtually every facet of public life in the West
and that they largely control the legislative process, distort
information received by the public through the media, and
determine, to a significant extent, the functioning of our
educational system and the direction of academic research. He
says the nature of large corporations is profoundly inhuman
because competition, coercion and exploitation are essential
aspects of their activities, all motivated by the desire for infinite
expansion.
Capra says that if the consequences of corporate power are
harmful in industrialized countries, they are altogether disastrous
in the Third World. He says that in those countries, where legal
restrictions are often nonexistent or impossible to enforce, the
exploitation of people and of their land has reached extreme
proportions. With the help of skillful manipulation of the media,
emphasising the “scientific” nature of their enterprises, and often
with the full support of the US Government, multinational
corporations ruthlessly exploit and extract the Third world’s
natural resources.
The avoidance of social issues in current economic theory,
says Capra, is closely related to the striking inability of
economists to adopt to ecological perspectives. He says that to
deal with economic phenomena from an ecological perspective,
economists will need to revise their basic concepts in drastic
ways. He says that the new economic theories or set of models is
likely to involve a systems approach that will integrate biology,
104

The New Idealism
psychology political philosophy, and several other branches of’
human knowledge, together with economics, into a broad
ecological framework.
Capra’s outline of the new physics on economics is certainly
interesting. This is about the only main area where I do not agree
with him totally because I feel that he fails to take into
consideration many new post – Marxist views, especially the work
undertaken by the Frankfurt School, such as the well-known
philosopher Herbert Marcuse as well as the other theorists who
have looked at the idealistic side of Marx’s philosophical writings.
An historical perspective of idealism
and its alternative
Virtually all Eastern philosophies are based on some form of
philosophical metaphysical idealism. The New Physics is,
generally, following a form of philosophical Idealism. Thus, we
are in fact lucky, because both in the history of Eastern and
Western philosophy there is a rich background of philosophical
Idealism. Capra consistently writes of the parallels between
modern physics and Eastern philosophy, and thus, is drawing
comparisons between two systems of Idealism.
In his excellent philosophical dictionary, Stuart Holroyd
defines philosophical Idealism as any doctrine which holds that
reality is not fundamentally material, but mental. He says that in
Platonic idealism, phenomena were considered not real in
themselves but as shadow-projections of the world of ideas, or
ideal forms. The Idealism of Berkeley maintains that material
things are held to have no existence independent of the mind; esse
105

The New Idealism
est percipi, to be is to be perceived, and perception of finite
minds, in the finite mind of God. Berkeley’s notion of Idealism
fits in very nicely with many of the developments of the New
Physics, especially the S Matrix theory and some of the other
developments made by Geoffrey Chew.
Holroyd points out that Kant’s brand of idealism says that
human mind is held capable of perception of knowledge only of
appearances (phenomena), which derive from an independently
existent transcendent reality.
In Hegelian Idealism, a spiritual absolute is held to be the
ultimate reality, and finite minds and material things to be
dependent fragments or illusory appearances generated by it.
“Generally, any philosophy which maintains a distinction
between reality and appearances, that infers distinction between
reality and appearances, that infers from the contradictoriness or
illusoriness of appearances the existence of a reality lying behind
them, is idealistic, ” writes Holroyd.55
Of course, one of the most extraordinary movements to come
out of German Idealism was Romanticism. As a general
philosophical movement, romanticism is best understood as the
initial phase of German Idealism, serving as a transition from
Kant to Hegel, and flourishing chiefly between 1775 and 1815.
The philosophical point of departure for romanticism is from
Kantian philosophy, while all German Idealism shares both the
fundamental purpose of extending knowledge to the noumena,
and the fundamental doctrine that all reality is ultimately spiritual,
derivative of a living spirit and so knowable by the human spirit.
55 S. Holroyd, The Arkana Dictionary of New Perspectives, Arkana,
London, 1989, p. 15
106

The New Idealism
The essence of philosophical Romanticism as expressed by
Schelling, and that which differentiates it from other types of
Idealism, resides in its conception of spirit. It claims that spirit, or
the Absolute, is essentially creative and that the ultimate ground
of all things is primarily an urge of self-expression, and all that it
has brought into being is but a means to its fuller self-realisation.
It is generally understood that if the Absolute of Fichte is a
moralist, and that of Hegel a logician, then that of the
Romanticists is mainly an artist and that the universe can be
interpreted in terms of the concepts of evolution, process, life,
and, ultimately that of Consciousness itself.
According to the Romantic movement, the world of nature is
one manifestation of Spirit while humanity is a higher
manifestation. The metaphysical process is the process by which
the Absolute seeks to realise itself, and all particular things are
but phases within it.
Of course, many great and wonderful writers and poets
evolved from the Romantic movement and fully expressed their
ideas. In France Rousseau, Hugo and Lamartine advocated
romanticism while Blake, Shelley and Byron became advocates in
England. They saw that the essence of romanticism, either as an
attitude or as a conscious program, is an intense interest in nature,
and an attempt to seize natural phenomena in a direct, immediate
and naive manner. It is because of this that romanticism regards
all forms, rules, conventions and manners as artificial constructs
and as hindrances to the grasp, enjoyment and expression of
nature.
Thus, there is a very strong tradition of Western
philosophical Idealism which is strongly anti-materialist and, of
107

The New Idealism
course, pro-metaphysical. Idealism is very much a metaphysical
system.
Eastern philosophies follow Idealism virtually to the letter.
Indian thought is generally a form of Idealism. The Bhagavad
Gita, while mixing pantheism, immanent theism, and deism,
inclines towards a personalistic idealism and an ethics of bhakti
(selfless devotion). Many of the schools of Buddism teach
idealistic doctrines with a monistic immaterialism and
subjectivism with the Absolute being pure consciousness. Other
forms of Buddhism have combined monistic, immateralistic
idealism with non-absolutistic nihilism. Subjectivistic idealism,
phenomenalistic idealism, which is the view that there is neither
absolute pure consciousness nor substantial souls, was taught by
the Buddhists Santaraksita and Kamalasila. Examples of modern
Vedantic idealism are the Yogavasistha, a form of subjective
monistic Idealism, and the monistic spiritualism of Gaudapada
where both duality and plurality are an illusion. The most
influential Vedantic system is the monistic spiritualism of
Sankara where the Absolute is pure indeterminate Being, which
can only be described as pure consciousness or Bliss. This is not
necessarily a form of mysticism as this state is easily attainable.
Vedantic idealism, whether in its monistic and impersonalistic
form, or in that of a more personalistic form, is the dominant type
of metaphysics in India. Idealism has also been pronounced in the
reviving doctrines of Shivaism, and the subsequent rise of
Shaktism which adheres to extremely strong tantric principles of
the cosmos. Tantricism is a very Idealistic metaphysic.56
56 D. Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy, Littlefield, Adams & Co.,
Totowa, New Jersey, 1962, p 138.
108

The New Idealism
The traditional basic concepts of Chinese metaphysics are
forms of Idealism. It must be pointed out that Chinese
metaphysics is extraordinarily similar to that of many forms of
Indian philosophy, and thus is very consistent with my own
position. It is only on very minor details do I adhere more easily
to Indian thought. In Chinese Idealism, heaven, the spiritual and
moral power of cosmic and social order, that distributes to each
thing and person its allotted sphere of action, is theistically and
personalistically conceived in The book of History and the Shih
Ching, the Book of Poetry. Tao, as cosmic principle, is an
impersonal, immaterial World Ground. Mayayana Buddhism,
introduced into China an idealistic influence. Pure metaphysical
idealism was taught by the Buddhist monk Hsuan Ch’uang.
Important Buddhist and Taoist influences appear in Sung
Confucianism which is a distinctly idealistic movement.
Consequently, if the New Physics has turned towards
idealism, the ancient cultures of the East should gain a great deal
of importance in philosophical research, while I believe it is
important to blend the advances of the New Physics with that of
ancient Idealism if we are to have any present progress.
Of course, the opposite of Idealism, is metaphysical Realism.
I use this term extremely carefully because there are many brands
of Realism. Historically, it is opposed to nominalism – that sort of
realism is often called Platonism. It is also opposed to Idealism in
post-Cartesian philosophy. This is the realism which I am directly
referring to. But before we go on, the other form of realism which
has developed this century is a form which is opposed to
instrumentalism (when discussing theoretical entities) and
opposed to verificationism and pragmatism (when discussing
109

The New Idealism
truth). The two notions of realism just mentioned are not
important to my own quest.
I am concerned with the realism which is opposed to
Idealism in Post-Cartesian philosophy. This I will call
“metaphysical realism” which, obviously, could well be a
tautology. Antony Flew defines this form of Realism, which has
been pushed as the major philosophical item of the twentieth
century, and is responsible for the materialist, determinist,
empiricist nature which reaches into the heart of analytical
philosophy, as the following concept: Realism is most commonly
the view (contrasted with Idealism) that physical objects exist
independently of being perceived. This is the major definition of
metaphysical Realism, and totally discounts the notion of mind.
This obviously reaffirms the standpoint of common sense but
thinkers have long been puzzled over how perceptions can yield
knowledge of a mind-independent world. Realists have replied, as
in G.E. Moore’s famous “Refutation of Idealism”, where he says
that Idealists see themselves imprisoned with their own
perception because they confuse the act of seeing a colour, which
is necessarily mind dependent, with its object, the colour itself,
which is not. Moore said that to call physical objects
arrangements of “Ideas” or “Impressions” is simply mistaking
language. Moore’s doctrine was one of the major criticism of
Idealism and helped launch linguistic philosophy, an approach
that holds that a careful study of how language is actually used,
taught, and developed in everyday discourse can illuminate, and
even dissolve, time-honoured philosophical problems. Philosophy
during this phase lost any metaphysical significance. This school
led some logical positivists out of their impasse through
Wittgenstein, but continued to maintain a very strong
110

The New Idealism
anti-metaphysical stance and addressed issues mainly to do with
epistemology – questions of truth – because, as Carnap had
stressed, metaphysics was now a meaningless pursuit which could
not even be verified. It should be pointed out that Logical
Positivism is anti-realist because it proposed to replace “truth”
with “verifiability”. Again, they are dealing with epistemological
questions because metaphysics had been abandoned. The five
areas of philosophy – metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political
theory and aethetics had lost its central member, namely,
metaphysics, through the analytical movement. I feel the New
Physics brings back that charge and makes it the central element
of philosophy.
What has intrigued me throughout my recent research into
this exciting new area, is almost a task in investigative
journalism. Who and why brought about the dismissal of
metaphysics? John Passmore’s A Hundred Years of Philosophy,
however, does throw some light on the topic. The blame clearly
falls on Moore and Russell and the New Realists. What is
extraordinary is that there were some rogue Idealist philosophers
in Britain at the time. One particular scientist/philosopher, the
astronomer Sir Arthur Eddington published several books during
the 1920s that in fact interpreted the New Physics from an Idealist
point. In his Space Time and Gravitation, The Nature of the
Physical World and The Philosophy of Physical Science,
Eddington says of the New Physics that Einstein’s “operational”
definition of physical concepts is an appeal to the contents of
consciousness. He saw his philosophy as a direct consequence of
modern science, and not at all, a product of the Cartesian tradition
in modern philosophy. Eddington is an example of the many
Idealist philosophers who were left at the gate in the first half of
111

The New Idealism
the 20th century. Other philosophers who fall into this category
include R.B. Haldene, who tried to incorporate Einstein’s theory
within the Hegelianism to which he so faithfully adhered, Karl
Pearson, W.K. Clifford and A.N. Whitehead.
In the case of Whitehead, he was the only philosopher in that
group who was not dismissed. His Process and Reality is regarded
as an outstanding work of philosophy whereby he links his
metaphysics with the Idealist tradition.
But the question remains: why the main currents of
Anglo-American philosophy followed language philosophy and
ran off into the area of epistemology, and thus hijacked academic
philosophy for most of the 20th century? One of the main reasons
was the incredible power that the Realist movement had itself on
American philosophy departments and also because much of the
New Physics was simply misunderstood at the time. This, I feel,
is the greatest disappointment because philosophers such as
Bertrand Russell had done extensive work on the New Physics
but failed to come up with a comprehensive theory. Russell did
produce the ABC of Relativity, which did little more than explain
the basic tenants of the New Physics. It does appear that it was
very much the professional physicist who saw the future of
philosophy as lying in the area of Idealism – and yet – despite the
fact that many physicists have firmly put their position behind an
Idealist interpretation of reality, philosophers still hang their head
in philosophical materialism and realism.
Another major reason, of course, for the victory of materialism
and realism during the 20th century had been the huge impact that
Newtonian Cartesian science had on many philosophers. Many
indeed felt that scientism was the way of the future and that all
answers from scientific positivism. But what is of most concern is
112

The New Idealism
that scientific and philosophical departments in western
universities are still teaching and researching Newtonian concepts
– almost one hundred years after the introduction of the New
Physics.
The New Idealism, Medicine
and Applied Philosophy
Because of the New Idealism many new branches of
philosophy have been developed, as has already been discussed in
some detail. The relationship between medicine and the New
Idealism is particularly exciting because it is certainly an area
where philosophy is very much an applied art. In the section titled
“Health, psychology and the New Idealism” I mainly examined
the psychological health aspects of the New Idealism. However,
the area of generalised medicine should certainly not be
overlooked.
In that section I touched on very briefly on the philosophies
of medicine of the East, as practised throughout India and China.
But what must be pointed out is that the New Physics actually
verifies much of what alternative medicine has been
philosophically saying for many years.
A great deal of Western medicine is deeply rooted in the
Newtonian Cartesian tradition and is thus based on a science that
has been well and truly superseded. Many medical practitioners
fail to realise the full significance of the New Physics. For
example, the treatment of cancer is still seen in Newtonian terms.
Oncologists tend to use Cartesian Newtonian treatments is a
cancer has become secondary -they surgically remove the
113

The New Idealism
particular area that has cancer. If a leg is cancerous, they chop off
the leg. This, of course, is not consistent with the New Physics
because quantum theory clearly shows that a system of energy is
connected throughout and that a disorder cannot be the product of
one localised situation. This type of medicine is extremely
reductionist and obviously very dangerous.
The amazing aspect of the claim by the New Physicists is
that when they say that Consciousness is producing reality, or
matter, it is very much in agreement with some of the ancient
medical models. The well-known Australian healer Ian Gawler
says that many people fall short of grasping the implications of
Einstein’s famous equation, E=mc(2). E stands for energy, m for
mass, and c for the speed of light. Gawler says that the equation is
saying that mass is a product of energy and light which is as
esoteric a statement as formulated by any ancient sage.
But Gawler says that this is the most remarkable thing of all.
He says that as the modern physicists probe deeper into the nature
of matter, they are forced to look at energy and to seek to
understand it. If all matter is made of energy, why does one block
of energy come together to build a rock, another a tree, another a
human, asks Gawler.
He says the physicists such as Fritjof Capra and David Bohm
are prepared to ask the most vital question, “Why?” and are
forced to introduce the concept of Consciousness. Gawler agrees
with them when they say that consciousness produces energy
which, in turn, is interpreted by our five senses as the thing we
call matter.
“What a concept. Consciousness produces energy which produces
matter. Thought precedes form. It leaves me concluding that my
physical form is the result of the sum total of my consciousness I
114

The New Idealism
must presume, therefore, that I and all those around me are all
essentially reflections of our overall consciousness. Further, given
our highly ordered world, I must presume an all-pervading
consciousness to provide the basic framework in which it all
happens,” writes Gawler.57
Gawler writes that if people examine Eastern thought and
metaphysics, there is a recurring model which both makes sense
of the phenomena and provides a framework in which to operate.
He points out that most major civilizations have had a tradition of
esoteric science in their culture and that because it was esoteric, it
was hidden from the mainstream of the people but used by those
initiated into its secrets in a very practical way.
Gawler says that in the esoteric lore of the Ancient
Egyptians, Chinese and Greeks, the Indians of North America and
the Incas of the South American continent, the Polynesian
Kahunas and Filipino healers, the Vedic seers of India, the early
Christians, and more recently, the medieval alchemists and
mystics of Europe, there is this reoccurring vision of humanity. It
is esoteric in nature but still used in that very practical way. All
these people say the physical body as being the end result of a
series of inter-related and interdependent subtle levels of
consciousness, according to Gawler.
Gawler then outlines his perspective on history with what he
concludes is the central element of his healing and medical
philosophy. He says that these old philosophies saw humanity as
basically being the sum total of seven levels of consciousness and
that to each level there was assigned a form of an energy body.
Only the physical body has the energy which is dense enough to
57 I. Gawler, You Can Conquer Cancer, Melbourne, 1987, page 186
115

The New Idealism
register immediately with humanity’s five senses and thus with
the direct perception of another person. Gawler then goes on to
stress that the other energy bodies can only be deduced by
inference or perceived directly by clairvoyant or extra-sensory
perception. Then, if we allow for our “astral level” which he
relates to the motions, we come to know ourselves.
Many healers, according to Gawler, particularly New Age
philosophical healers, base their diagnosis on perception of the
subtle energy of the health aura. The seven levels of
consciousness are given various names. There are various
kingdoms with the Mineral Kingdom in the physical level. The
Vegetable Kingdom is mainly in the Physical Kingdom, but peaks
into the Emotional level. The animal Kingdom, says Gawler, is
strongly involved with the physical and emotional levels and also
has activity in the Mental sphere. Humans are active on the
physical and mental levels and also has activity in the Mental
sphere.
Part of this philosophy stresses that the mind acts as the
fulcrum between physical and spiritual humanity and that intellect
transmuted into intuition to bridge the gap. The purpose of our
lives is to make that leap and our goal is to be freed of the
limitations of personality, which is part of our lower self, before
we can “soar free as spiritual beings”.
This relates directly to healing, as Gawler points out, because
consciousness impinges on physical health. This is centred on
seven chakras. A chakra is a Sanskit word used to describe the
concentration of this subtle energy which is said to be located in
the seven different regions of the spine and head. Gawler points
out that each chakra is a reflection of one level of consciousness
and, in turn, relates most directly to one particular endocrine
116

The New Idealism
gland. This suggests that the physical body is the end result of
formative energies coming from the various forms of
consciousness while the body interacts with its own immediate
physical body.
“Disease, then, can be due then to purely physical causes, as
in the case of a true accident, or, more commonly, is due to
aberrations in the energy flows. Such aberrations reflect
disharmony in the local areas of the patient’s attention. Many
people are now focused primarily in the emotional sphere, while a
growing number are centred in the mental. This fact is recognised
by the growing attention being paid to psychosomatic diseases
and the role of tension and anxiety in the production of disease,”
writes Gawler.58
“So just how do we set about hearing a diseased Body? If
disharmony is the root cause, obviously anything that recreates
harmony will have a healing effect. If there is a gross disease,
however, the symptoms may be so severe and so physical, that it
may not be possible for those involved to normalise the situation
using only the energies available through esoteric avenues,”
writes Gawler.59
Gawler’s seven levels of consciousness as expressed in the
energy bodies of humans fits in very nicely with David Ash’s
conception of super energy. Also, this concept is widely held in
virtually all esoteric cultures and religions and especially those
people who follow the New Age.
As discussed earlier the concept of super energy virtually
verifies the energy body which surrounds a human. Ash and
58 ibid, page 191
59 ibid,
117

The New Idealism
Hewitt say that to western medical science, the principles
underlying complementary therapies are often baffling and that
many doctors feel a deep sense of frustration at the unverifiability
of alternative medicine because they think that medicine is an
empirically-based practice.
Virtually all alternative medicine talk of an “energy” body,
surrounding and permeating the physical body. Some of them
refer to an “etheric” body, others call it a “subtle” or “sensitive”
body.
Ash and Hewitt say that many of the otherwise
incomprehensible and sometimes bizarre treatments in alternative
medicine claim to operate on this energy body. The energy body
is said to act as a blueprint for the physical form, influencing its
processes and functions. Alternative practitioners claim that if the
energy body is treated, the physical body will heal itself.
Acupuncture says the energy body has definite flow lines
called meridians. These meridians act like streams, connecting the
pools of energy deep within the body to the peripheral areas of
the skin. An acupuncturist treats the organs through the
meridians.
An acupuncturist stimulates or sedates the flow of energy in
the meridian according to the diagnosis of the energy state of the
organ concerned. This is done by inserting needles into the
appropriate meridians at strategic points. In this way acupuncture
seeks to harmonise and balance the energy body, encouraging the
physical body to heal itself.
Likewise, reflexology is based on the principle that blocks in
the energy body can be released by massaging the soles of the
feet while homoeopathy regards illness as an imbalance in the
underlying energy pattern or vital force of a person. Alternative
118

The New Idealism
practitioners are generally united in the belief that some sort of
subtle energy exists which has a profound effect upon the
physical body.
Ash and Hewitt claim that the concept of super-energy
removes the stumbling block of an intangible life field. “It points
to the possibility of forms of energy existing beyond the physical
world. It also explains how such a life energy field could
permeate and interpenetrate a physical body. A field of super
energy could ‘coincide’ with a physical body because there is no
space-time separation between energy and super energy,” they
write.
Ash and Hewitt claim that super energy has been described
in classical India and China. There, it was the traditional belief
that the natural environment, including the air we breathe and the
food we eat, was charged with life energy — called Prana in India
and Chi in China.
Basically, what is also being described here is what called be
termed “Applied Idealism” – or rather, applied philosophy. For
most of the 20th century philosophers have tended to downplay
their profession but the New Idealism actually clearly leads the
way for philosophers to enter the medical field and make an
active contribution.
One very practical area with the New Idealism is in the area
of meditation, I have personally experimented with most forms of
meditation and have mastered the art of many of them. In fact, I
used meditation to overcome two severe illnesses. To me, this is
the New Idealism in action. One particular meditation technique I
use has confirmed to me that there are certainly many different
levels of consciousness. But one of the most amazing aspects of
this particular type of meditation that I use is the verification of
119

The New Idealism
philosophical Idealism. This particular technique, called Integral
meditation, starts with a simple exercise called the Progressive
Muscle Relaxation Technique (PNR technique). With this
technique you progressively relax your muscles from your feet up
to your head. But this is only done for the first 10 days. During
this time you tense your muscles and then relax them
progressively. However, after 10 days a person no longer needs to
physically relax the muscles but can simply mentally relax them –
or rather a wave of relaxation over their muscles. And this is the
most amazing aspect of this technique. That is, by simply
imagining relaxing the muscles, it will happen. And this is the
New Idealism in action. It is also the very heart of mind/body
medicine, and an aspect that is seldom promoted.
Integral meditation clearly proves that the power of human
thought alone has an affect on other levels of matter. This is an
extraordinary claim but, I feel, is the basis of a new medicine, a
medicine that needs to be explained philosophically. This is an
extremely exciting time for medicine because as the old
Newtonian/Cartesian concepts are discarded, a much more
holistic understanding and philosophy is being introduced. But it
must be stressed that all of this clearly needs to be elaborated and
explained. I strongly feel that if patients have a clear
understanding of the philosophical underpinnings of this new
medical system, then results would surely result. Already, the
technique of integral meditation is being used extensively with
success with advanced cancer patients as well as those suffering
from heart disease and mental illness. It is now also being used by
immune diseases such as AIDS with some encouraging results.
Thus, at the very heart of the New Idealism lies a very practical
philosophy, a philosophy that empowers individuals on a massive
120

The New Idealism
scale. The notion that thought creates matter is revolutionary but
the medical system must start incorporating it. Both contemporary
and esoteric science supports the New Idealism but a massive
education program needs to be developed to implement the
philosophical understanding of this new paradigm.
The New Idealism thus opens up a realistic scientific method
for what alternative medicine has been advocating now for many
years. Of course, apart from those alternative regimes that have
already been mentioned, there are many other areas that would
fall under these labels. Biofeedback, metabolic therapy plus a host
of visualization techniques would also be included.
But where the New Idealism cuts deeply into philosophical
terrain, and particularly into the nature of what I regard as the
cutting edge of thinking in medical science in the world, is in the
area of mind/body medicine. One extremely well-known
mind/body medical practitioner Deepak Chopra, claims that
healing is the ability of one mode of consciousness (the mind) to
spontaneously correct the mistakes in another mode of
consciousness which he calls the body but insists that the process
is a completely self – enclosed process.
He says that contrary to the germ theory of disease, which
tries to tell us that the war was started “out there” be they
invaders of every kind — bacteria, viruses, carcinogens – which
are lying in wait to attack us, the real conflict is being waged “in
here” or inside the body. This goes right to the heart of western
medicine and is quite a revolutionary claim, and a claim that most
western medical practitioners simply cannot accept because their
training in Newtonian science.
Chopra says that it is only when the immune system
collapses, as in the case of AIDS, do we realise that our skin,
121

The New Idealism
lungs, mucus linings, intestines, and may other organs have
learned to co-exist with outside organisms in a delicate balance.
The pneumonia that an AIDS patient typically catches is caused
by a variety of Pneumocystis that is present in everyone’s lungs
all the time. The AIDS virus activates the disease from the inside
by demolishing one part of the immune system (the helper T
cells), thus breaking apart the network of information that holds
us together.
There is a network, says Chopra, of information that holds
our bodies together. But he says that the network does not stop
with us and that the simplistic idea that germs are our deadly
enemy is a half-truth, because germs are part of the network too.
The whole living world is bound up in DNA, which has evolved
along the channel of bacteria, along another as plants and
animals, and along still another as humanity. Chopra says that the
environment “out there” co-operates with the one “in here” like
two polarities, in one sense totally opposed but in another totally
complementary. He says that if a person looks at reality from the
viewpoint of all DNA, not just ours, then there is an entire global
information network that has to be kept alive and healthy.
Chopra says that viruses are capable of mutating very
quickly and that is why a shot that immunizes a person from flu
will usually not be effective the following year and that the flu
virus would have mutated somewhere around the world into a
completely different strain. Chopra says that some researchers
have speculated that the reason why viruses mutate so rapidly is
that life itself is changing, thus carrying to all parts of the globe
the news that life is changing, Getting the flu, then, according to
Chopra, is like getting a news update and that a person’s own
DNA learns about alterations in the world’s DNA that are
122

The New Idealism
changing it, and a person’s DNA then meets the challenge, not
passively but actively and that it must prove its viability by
surviving the virus.
As the immune system rushes to meet the invader, as they
engage in battle, it is molecule against molecule and the whole
operation is timed to the split second and leaves no room for
error. Chopra says that the macrophages rush to discover the
identity of this new life form, probe it for vital weaknesses, and
then mobilize the genetic material in their own DNA that will
collapse the molecules of the cirrus, rendering them harmless.
Chopra says that at the same time, the immune cells also
destroy any of a person cells that have played host to the invader
and these infected host cells have not yet died from the flu. They
are engorged with living viruses that pose a threat after the
immune cells have wiped out all the flu that is flowing through
the bloodstream, To kill an infected host cell, certain immune
cells, latch onto it from the outside and puncture holes in the cell
wall. Like a deflating tyre, the host cells spills out its liquid
content, collapses onto an empty bag and dies.
However the host cell is not eliminated because its DNA is
actually dismantled by other signals from the attacking immune
cells. Chopra believes that this is an absolutely fascinating aspect
of the entire process. He says that what is really happening is that
one bit of a person’s DNA (immune cell) is dismantling another
bit of DNA (the host cell), which in fact is just a copy of itself.
The only difference between the two is that the second bit of
DNA, in the host cell, has made the mistake of co-operating with
the flu virus and that no one knows why this occurs. The virus is
no match for the cell, being thousands of times smaller and less
complex. “You would think that such mistakes show the
123

The New Idealism
imperfection of the body’s intelligence, but that is too superficial.
He says what is actually happening here is an exquisite example
of quantum healing at work; in fact, the idea that the war is going
on is just another half-truth, for when one bit of DNA dismantles
another, we are witnessing a totally self-enclosed” writes
Chopra.60
He says that every part of a disease reaction from the
scavenger cells that first meet the invader, to the host cells that
take it in, to the macrophages, killer T-cell, helper T-cells,
B-cells, and so on, are all the same DNA expressing its various
abilities. In other words, the DNA has decided to stage for its own
benefit a drama in which every part is played by itself, says
Chopra.
He then asks why should DNA put on one mask to succumb
to the flu virus and other to rush in and destroy it. He says that
no-one has answered this profound question, but it must have its
logic in the whole scheme of life, the larger drama enacted by all
the DNA in the world. Chopra speculates that humanity is
watching DNA enrich life by adding so many variations as can
possibly exist on one planet.
According to Chopra, nothing that happens to DNA is lost. It
all stays within the self-enclosed system. Once the flu virus is
defeated, the DNA records the encounter by producing new
anti-bodies and specialized memory cells that float around in the
lymph system and bloodstream for years afterwards; adding to
immense storehouse of information that DNA has been
accumulating since life began and this is how DNA makes a
person a player on the world scene. Chopra uses an example that
60 D. Chopra, quantum Healing, Bantam, London, 1990, page 150
124

The New Idealism
if he looks out his window, he can see a multilane highway with
cars rushing by and he says that this entire spectacle is the play of
DNA.
It has been projected from a molecule whose responsibility is
to unfold new life as a whole. It has been estimated that all the
separated DNA of every person who has ever lived would fit
comfortably in a teaspoon, and yet it is the tightly wound DNA in
even a single cell nucleus of a person’s body were uncoiled and
the pieces laid end to end, they would stretch out to five feet.
Chopra says that this means the genetic thread contained in the
body’s trillion cells is 50 billion miles long which is enough to
reach the moon and back 100,000 times. He cites that from the
Indian Vedas, the ancient text of India, that the universe’s
intelligence extends “from smaller than the smallest to larger than
the largest” and that DNA is the physical proof of it. This
intelligence, of course, clearly demonstrates that the New
Idealism reaches into the heart of the biochemical physical world.
This intelligence that Chopra writes about is the consciousness or
thought aspect of the universe. It could also be seen as the
Consciousness or thought aspect of matter, particularly living
matter,
On this basis, Chopra says that it is wrong to think that
conflict is the norm and that, in general, a state of peace exists
between a person’s DNA and the other DNA “out there”. Every
time a person actually has to fight off a disease by getting sick,
there are hundreds of times when a person’s body has warded off
sickness, without any overt symptoms it is only when there is a
distortion “in here” that the immune system loses its ability to
silently defend, heal, and remember.
125

The New Idealism
Chopra says that humans tend to forget that peace is the norm and
that the rise of stress-related disorders, depression, anxiety,
Chronic fatigue is a sign of the times. The hectic pace of work
and life in general has accustomed people to turmoil. “By now,
people are thoroughly indoctrinated by the idea that a certain
degree of internal conflict is normal. The war, it seems, was
started by us, and it is taking its toll in a frighteningly ordinary
way,” says Chopra.
Every day, says Chopra, a physician in practice sees a patient
who has undergone some devastating cancer treatment that has
been declared a success because the cancer cells are now gone,
disregarding the weakening of the entire body, the looming
danger of recurrent cancer caused by the treatment itself, and the
state of lasting fear and depression that so often comes with the
cure and that to live in constant fear, even without cancer, is not a
good state of health and well being.
The underlying philosophy in cancer treatment, says Chopra,
is that the mind will just have to stand by while the body endures
devastation.
In other words, an open clash is actually encouraged in the
mind-body system. Chopra says that this simply cannot be
healing or good medicine. He says that the clash between mind
and body the patient is fighting on both sides.
Chopra believes that the vital issue is not how to win the war
but how to keep peace in the first place. He says the West has not
arrived at this insight, or comprehended that the physical
manifestation of a disease is a phantom. The cancer cells that
patients dread and the physician’s battle against are just such
phantoms and they will come and go raising hopes and despair,
while the real culprit, the persistent memory that creates the
126

The New Idealism
cancer cell, goes undetected. Chopra says that the Indian
medicine of Ayurveda gives people the means to go directly to
the level of consciousness that exercises this memory.
“We ask for heroism from patients at a time when they have
little of it to give, or else we treat them as statistics, turning
survival into a game of numbers. Ayurveda tells us to place the
responsibility for disease at a deeper level of consciousness,
where a potential cure could be found,” says Chopra.61
To say that a patient’s awareness is responsible for their
cancer, says Chopra, is very troublesome to many people and that
Ayurveda does not agree that there is a so-called cancer
personality, nor does it accept that superficial emotions, styles of
behaviour, and attitudes cause cancer. He says that some
researchers are convinced that patients who react with
helplessness and depression to their cancer are more likely to die
from the disease than those patients who have a strong component
in their personalities called the will to live.
A person afflicted with cancer, says Chopra, goes through
cycles of emotion and their will to live is susceptible to wild
swings from one extreme to the other. Chopra goes on to say that
it is absolutely normal to be too busy to be sick, for that is exactly
the kind of awareness that the immune system thrives on. When a
person is just as they are and not a “cancer patient” then the
complicated chain of the immune response, with its hundreds of
its precisely timed operations, goes to work with a vengeance,
writes Chopra.
He says that the immune system is very beautiful but it is
also extremely vulnerable. He says that it forges a person’s link
61 ibid, page 266
127

The New Idealism
with life and yet it can break it at any moment. The immune
system knows all our secrets and it knows why a mother who has
lost of child can die of grief, because the immune system has that
information. Chopra believes that the immune system knows
every moment a cancer patient spends with the disease because it
turns these moments into the body’s physical reality. This, of
course, is extremely profound because it shows how the body’s
intelligence, being aware of its own consciousness, is just a part
of mind, in this case, the mind of the body. This is how the
doctrine of philosophical Idealism is so important to understand
because it changes the basic structures of understanding even our
own bodies in reality.
In this case, cancer, or any other disease, is nothing more
than the sequence of information, each with its own emotions, its
own mind-body chemistry. Chopra says that the diseased cells are
but one ingredient out of countless others while the other cells are
just more intangible. Chopra says that Western medical science
has still not come to grips with this reality at all.
Chopra says that the fact that emotions lie so deep does not
mean that cancer patients cannot alter them and that people can be
rescued from their feelings of helplessness and despair by going
to a still deeper level. He believes that it does not matter if one is
caught in the throes of either despair or huge self-confidence and
that either one could be a problem. Chopra elaborates that
Ayuveda therefore pays much less attention to surface emotions
that current mind-body medicine does and that whole rationale for
treating cancer or AIDS with primordial sound and bliss
techniques is that they reach the deep levels of consciousness
common to everyone, the weak as much as the strong.
128

The New Idealism
All things in existence, says Chopra, are tied to our senses,
and our senses are tired to our brains. The commonplace notion
that “this chair is hard to touch” is not true, until a person restates
it as “this chair is hard because my brain made it that way”. A
disease is not a molecular contact of some outside organism with
the molecules of a person’s body. It is not even the flow of toxins
in a person’s blood or the action of runaway cells. According to
Ayuveda, an Indian system based on the premise of philosophical
Idealism, a disease is a sequence of moments that a person lives
through, during which the person appraises every iota of the vast
input that comes pouring in from all quarters of the world,
including their body.
A person’s body is a world, too and that both the world
outside and the world “inside” are tied to the sequence of
moments ingrained in Consciousness, or rather, held in thought
itself. Chopra says that a person is in charge of two worlds, the
little one in them and the big one around them.
He says that infinite choice is open at every second for them
to alter the shape of the world, for it is no shape other than what a
person gives it. Chopra says that the reason why meditation is so
important in Ayurveda is that it leads the mind to a “free zone”
that is not touched by disease. Until a person knows that such a
place exists, the disease will be seen to be taking over completely.
129

The New Idealism
CHAPTER 3
THREE IMPORTANT ASPECTS
OF THE NEW IDEALISM
a:
The New Idealism in Literature and aesthetics!
b:
The debate within Naturalism and the impact of the
New Idealism
c:
Applied Philosophy and the New Idealism.
Introduction
T
T
his section will examine what I regard as being extremely
important to further understanding major issues of the New
Idealism. The first area will concentrate on literature and how the
New Idealism has impacted on literary movements and
associations. This will obviously examine the scientific impact of
the New Physics on creative writers. Many of the major writers of
the 20th century prided themselves on their scientific
understanding. This area will also detail some of the debate
within which the New Idealism would have on aesthetics. Again,
this would cross over into the area of literature.
Then the huge area of naturalism will be examined and its
relationship to the New Idealism. Naturalism has been dominant
130

The New Idealism
in many 20th century philosophic communities and is still in a
very powerful position. The New Idealism obviously throws
further light on this debate. The last area will examine some of
the issues face applied philosophy and the New Idealism. This is
an extremely controversial area because it crosses into medicine.
But it does not just cover medicine. The area of applied
philosophy is now gaining new ground in our community and I
believe the New Idealism will further add to the development of
this area.
The New Idealism in literature and aesthetics
The New Idealism can be particularly felt in a great deal of the
literary landscapes of the 20th century. The impact of the New
Physics was already being felt by the 1920s. The great minds of
the early 20th century were increasingly becoming bedazzled with
the implications of the New Physics.
The first half of the 19th century saw an increasing interest in
experimental ideas. This was an extension of the modernist
tradition of the 19th century. This is an extremely important
point. Many of these extreme experimental movements came out
of Europe in the last few decades of the 19th century.
During this time the amazing experimentors of the modernist
tradition exploded into the consciousness of the world literary
community. The French writers particularly caught the
imagination of the time. French poet Arthur Rimbaud was hailed
as an authentic voice of this new movement which was to shape
taste, culture and intellectual thinking through into the 20th
century. Amazing intellectual movements blossomed during these
times. The Dada and Surrealist movements exploded onto the
131

The New Idealism
European landscape. Writers were actively introducing concepts
of transcendentalism into their own literary consciousness. And in
music Jazz screamed behind this new consciousness as the avant
garde realised that indeed the notion of spirituality and mind may
be essential, and philosophers used literary devices to further their
philosophy. This is what they believed the 20th century to be
about the final great expression of Romantic: theory put into
practice. This is what makes the 20th century so exciting from a
literary point of view. And I would like to stress the strong
emphasis that the idealism followed by the great writers of the
20th century is a new form of Idealism. As the 20th century
progressed further many of the ideas of the writers was in fact
based on science and scientific critical thinking.
It is also important to point out that as philosophy became
increasingly hostile to the notion of philosophical idealism, the
literary writers of the 20th century carried the flag of Idealism and
along the way invented and reinvented different forms of
Idealism. And this occurred right across the world, from Europe
to Latin America. The notion of spirituality and Gnostic
structures of thought often lay in the background of these literary
traditions. Many people who essentially wanted a philosophy
career had been inclined to enter literary fields because they knew
that the notion of philosophical Idealism was far more accepted in
these areas. This is an extremely important point as our
universities preached the New Materialism which came from
Logical Positivism and other materialist philosophies.
Often prominent and famous novelists simply called
themselves philosophers even though they may not have worked
in philosophy. A good example of this is the extraordinary writer
Arthur Koestler. Koestler was one of the early 20th centuries
132

The New Idealism
most original political and scientific thinkers who used literature
to further Idealist philosophy and the New Age in general. His
books and many articles profoundly influenced intellectual
opinion and were instrumental in popularizing what was
essentially a mystical viewpoint. Born in Budapest in 1905 and
educated at the University of Vienna, he took up journalism as a
career and became foreign correspondent for a number of German
and British publications. In the Spanish Civil War he was
captured by the Fascists, imprisoned and condemned to death.
He had a lengthy incarceration and his execution was a
constant threat. Nevertheless, it was this experience that made
him undergo a mystical conversion and was to change the course
of his life. Koestler was eventually saved from execution from
British protests and he then went onto to become one of the
interesting and dynamic personalities on the world literary scene.
His novel Darkness at Noon was translated into 32 languages and
possibly ranks with Orwell’s 1984 as the most widely read
political novel of our times.
He used this literary career to catapult himself as a
popularizer of science and in later years became profoundly
interested in psychical research and his Roots of Coincidence
became extremely well known. In his The Yogi and the
Comrnissar, argues that there were two essential psychological
types: the “Commissar” who believed the world should be
changed by influencing others and the Yogi who believed the
world should be changed by influencing oneself.
An area which Koestler greatly made popular was the area of
eastern philosophy and in a sense he was one of the first
westerners to show how eastern philosophy is Idealist in tradition.
It is because of this that Koestler is much a part of the tradition of
133

The New Idealism
the New Idealism because he was an innovator and his mind
grabbed Idealist notions that had not been discovered before by
western scholars but of course had been part of the eastern
tradition for thousands of years. Nevertheless, eastern philosophy
continued to divert in new and exciting ways, a fact that is often
overlooked by western scholars of eastern philosophy.
Koestler also coined the term “Holon”, a critical aspect of the
New Idealism, particularly in physics. He used the term in the
context of the General Systems Theory which is outlined by
Fritjof Capra. A holon is an entity which functions at once as a
whole and as a part, and which manifests properties of
independence in the one function and dependence in the other.
In normal usage the term whole and part imply something
incomplete or complete, fragmented or finished and contained,
yet in reality we do not find parts of wholes in this absolute sense
rather we find that there are ascending orders or levels of
complexity, with each level of order being at once a thing in itself
and a component of a larger or more comprehensive entity.
Koestler went on to designate this dual nature of holons the
“Janus principle” which implies that holons, like the Janus
legend, have two faces, one turned downward and preoccupied
with the self with the other one turned upward and concerned
with its relation. to the next level in the hierarchy. This means
that holons have two purposes, the self-assertive on the one hand
and the integrative on the other hand.
Another major fiction writer of the first halt of the 20th
century to have a huge impact on the world stage and in
philosophy in general was Aldous Huxley. The role of Huxley
cannot be understated. Huxley was mentioned briefly earlier on in
this book in regard to his promotion of Hinduism throughout the
134

The New Idealism
western world. He and fellow British novelist Christopher
Isherwood, championed Hinduism as early as the 1940s.
Isherwood is now regarded as the father of modern gay and
homosexual writing and is seen as a top prose stylist.
Huxley used his fiction to promote his philosophy. An entire
generation, the hippies, born between 1932 and 1955, all
worshipped Huxley. Even world famous musical bands were
named after books Huxley had written with such titles as The
Doors Of Perception. Huxley is very much an early New Age
pioneer and throughout the first part of the 20th century
established a top reputation as one of the English world ‘s truly
great novelists. He and George Orwell became virtually
household names in a time when quality literature could still
make an author as household name.
One of Huxley’s novels, Brave New World, is widely
considered by literary critics as being one of those universal
novels of the modern era. The novel itself describes a world ruled
where control and fascism with Huxley of course using the book
as a metaphor of the 20th century. In the book Huxley predicts
birth control pills and many other medical scientific
breakthroughs that later came during the 1960s. Huxley came
from a long line of famous British scientists and had excellent
scientific knowledge including that of physics.
Huxley used a very famous expression – that of perennial
philosophy. The term was actually coined by Leibniz to describe
the “highest common factors” of religions and spiritual and
perennial philosophies. This is religion divested of doctrine, the
time-honored and quintessential wisdom and knowledge
vouchsafed by the religious experience. Huxley describes this as
the basis of a major philosophical Idealist position. “It is the
135

The New Idealism
metaphysic that recognises a divine Reality substantial to the
world of things and lives and minds; the psychology that finds in
the soul something similar to, or even identical with, divine
Reality; the ethic that places man’s final end in the knowledge of
the immanent and transcendent Ground of all being,” writes
Huxley.
Huxley also suggested that the brain acts as a reducing valve
on the mind, which had been an idea that he came to through his
own experience and the influence of the philosopher C.D. Broad.
In his book The Doors of Perception, Huxley quotes Broad as
saying: “Each person is at each moment capable of remembering
all that has ever happened to him and of perceiving everything all
that has ever happened to him and of perceiving everything that is
happening everywhere in the universe.”
Broad believed the role of the brain was to protect us from
being overwhelmed and confused by this mass of knowledge –
that the function of the brain as being mainly eliminative and not
productive. Huxley concurred with this view. “Each one of us is
potentially Mind at Large. But in so far as we are animals, our
business is at all costs to survive. To make biological survival
possible, Mind at Large has to be funneled through the reducing
valve of the brain and nervous system, What comes out at the
other end is a measly trickle of the kind of consciousness which
will help us to stay alive on the surface of this particular
planet…The various other world with which human beings
erratically make contact are so many elements in the totality of
the awareness belonging to Mind at Large.
One of Huxley’s most important works included a book
which he edited. The book, VEDANTA for the Western World, is
now a classic, in Indian Idealist philosophy. Vedanta is the
136

The New Idealism
wisdom of the Vedas, the perennial philosophy distilled over
centuries in India from the oldest known religious writings.
Huxley believed that there was an intimate connection between
Christianity and Hinduism.
Huxley made a great point that all religions are essentially
the same and that all of them can be united through the concept of
philosophical Idealism. This was a very radical theory at the time
he was propounded it. In all the higher religions the doctrines
about eternal Reality, and practices designed to help worshippers
to render themselves sufficiently timeless to apprehend the
Eternal God, bear a close family resemblance. Eckhart, as
Professor Otto has shown in his Mysticism East and West
formulates a philosophy which is substantially the same as that of
Shankara; and the practical teaching of India and Christian
mystics is identical as such matters as “holy indifference” to
temporal affairs; Mortification of memory, for the past and
anxiety about the future. For the mystics both of East and West, it
is axiomatic that one must seek first the kingdom of God (the
timeless kingdom of an eternal God).
As has been outlined widely throughout this book the
concept of philosophical Idealism can be seen throughout Indian
philosophy and Hinduism in particularly. Huxley in a way
catapulted Indian philosophy into the consciousness of the
western world’s literary and creative intelligentsia. Huxley at the
end lived in Hollywood in California during a time when the
West Coast of American had attracted much alternative views and
thinkers. In a way, this is a form of the New Idealism. Huxley
was one of the most clever writers expounding Indian thought and
its relationship to western philosophy and religion. This is a very
137

The New Idealism
important notion because this again laid the groundwork for later
movements which greatly respected Huxley’s work.
The explosion of literary activity at the middle of the 20th
century cannot be understated. And this is clearly related to the
New Idealism. I believe that the New Idealism is also part of a
new feeling, a new mood, a new way of thinking that spread out
to the mass of humanity within the Anglo American world.
The role of the Beat movement in bringing about a radical
change of consciousness throughout the planet is of vital
importance. The Beats were a highly eclectic collection of
writers, poets, novelists, mystics and scientists who radically
challenged the status quo of the Cartesian-Newtonian world. The
Beats also started a movement that has not stopped to this day.
They are now being heralded within the New Age community as
the early pioneers. It is now clear that the philosophies of the Beat
movement also influenced and was embedded in the both the
hippie and punk movements which were in fact later generations
and will be discussed in detail further on.
The Beat movement became world famous. Many critics are
now declaring that the Beats started the new anti-racist and civil
rights movement of the 1960s within America. The Beats have
also been behind the rise of the worldwide gay movement and
feminist movement of the 1970s and 1980s. And even more
importantly, they were behind the Spiritual Revolution of the
1960s and 1970s that gripped the world.
The New Idealism is very much the belief that something
new is in the air. It does of course embody the belief that
Consciousness and Mind creates Matter. But up to the 1950s
throughout the world Idealism had been abandoned by academic
philosophy departments for materialism.
138

The New Idealism
Thus, when super poet Allen Ginsberg performed his famous
poem Sari Francisco in 1955 called Howl, the beginnings of the
Beat Movement moved into action. Howl would eventually go on
to sell millions of copies and has become on of the biggest selling
books of poems in the Anglo-American world. (Ginsberg, who
died in 1997, was an extraordinary figure, a visionary with
amazing skills in drawing in and creating a movement. His poem
Howl was a spiritual statement against American fascism during
the 1950s. It was a call to stop the military-industrial complex
that was threatening the world with mass extinction through
nuclear weapons. The poem spoke out against a deeply
anti-spiritual America that had become completely materialist.
This form of Materialism reached right into the heart of the
American Academic community. Ginsberg believed that writers
and thinkers had to return to their spiritual heritage. By the turn of
the 1960s Ginsberg had increasingly become a Buddhist and
actually lived in India with his boyfriend in the early 1960s. They
were some of the first white people on the planet to grow their
hair.
From the mid 1960s and until the mid 1970s Ginsberg’s
poetry continued to become a best-seller not just in America but
throughout the world. He became the father of the counterculture
and very much saw his role as that of a general guiding the troops
into battle. And of course the massive civil unrest throughout the
western world because of the Vietnam War and many other issues
did create a war. THIS was the New Idealism in action. This is
clear evidence that the New Idealism certainly has a political side
that must be considered in any analysis of the New Idealism.
The war that was waged in the western world between what
was clearly two forces cannot be underestimated. When the
139

The New Idealism
hippies went to protest and when the civil rights campaigners
went out on a limb THIS was war. And by the late 1960s there
were literally tens of millions of hippies throughout the western
world. The American Democratic Convention in Chicago it 1968
plus the major demonstrations in Paris were seen as watersheds.
In Chicago in 1968 Allen Ginsberg was leading the way. By
the early 1970s Ginsberg had become a practicing Tibetan
Buddhist. This is a very important point because much of the
early New Age movement bad been influenced by Buddhism
during the 1950s and 1960s. Because Ginsberg was so famous
and on the lips of every alternative thinker and writer by the
1970s, this clearly gave good publicity for Buddhism and the
New Age movement in general.
Allen Ginsberg read Howl at this amazing poetry reading in
Sari Francisco in 1955, the literary side of the New Idealism
really began in earnest. San Francisco went on to become the
Paris of the New Age and counter culture movement and
remained so right up into the middle of the 1980s until California
had virtually been turned increasingly into a police state and
AIDS had started to destroy the gay scene and men were dying in
their dozens.
Publishing houses such as City Lights which was started by
another Beat writer called Lawrence Ferlinghetti became the
symbol of the radical side of the New Age and the symbol of the
New Idealism. This publishing company is at the very heart of the
New Idealism and Ferlinghetti published many extraordinary
books of poetry himself which sold in the millions.
The Beat movement produced some of the best and most
important writers of the 20th century. William Burroughs and
Jack Kerouac introduced novels that changed a generation. Both
140

The New Idealism
of these writers were deeply influenced by the new spirituality
that had been evolving. Both were extremely well educated in
science and literature. Both were also well acquainted with
esoteric knowledge. I personally believe that William Burroughs
is perhaps the most important writer of the contemporary English
novel. Burroughs was also deeply influenced by Chinese Taoism.
Burroughs was one of those rare figures that investigated any
knowledge that furthered the pursuit of pure knowledge. He lived
in various places around the world from South America, Tangiers,
Paris and London. He was another father of the international
counterculture and became a famous symbol for the growing gay
rights movement. His novels dealt seriously with the concept of
aliens and many of his novels were set on alien planets that had
been infected with a virus that was killing the population. He
wrote these novels before the advent of AIDS. He also wrote
these novels before the evolution of the UFO and alien movement
which is now firmly entrenched in the New Age movement and
an area of the New Age movement that is now taken very
seriously through work done by the Centre for Extraterrestrial
Intelligence (CETI) which has recently disclosed extraordinary
claims about aliens called Greys, Reptoids and the Galactic
Federation.
Nevertheless, William Burroughs sharply criticised the
overly materialist nature of our institutions and cultures. His
novels were a savage indictment of the Newtonian-Cartesian
world. Burroughs was educated at Harvard University and went
on to do post-graduate work in medicine and anthropology.
Burroughs was also very well versed in the New Physics and
clearly saw the relationship between David Bohm’s work and the
revolutionary aspects of quantum theory. Burroughs was
141

The New Idealism
essentially an Idealist. For a time he even followed the Church of
Scientology although eventually left that organisation. Burroughs
also wrote extensively of the relationship between the South
American Indian communities and their unique relationship with
spirituality.
Jack Kerouac was another Beat novelist who championed the
notion of philosophical Idealism. He was a committed Buddhist
Catholic and consistently wrote of the relationship between all
religions but especially his beloved Buddhism and Catholicism.
His extraordinary ability to show how Consciousness was
producing matter was constantly depicted in his beautiful novels,
most of which became best sellers throughout the late 1950s and
1960s. One of his most famous New Age novels and a novel that
would eventually become a classic for Buddhist spiritual
philosophies was The Dharma Bums, a classic. The novel
contains many dialogues between characters expressing their
desire to explain the Idealist notion behind Buddhism and of the
quest for the Void, for higher consciousness, for the mental
world.
Kerouac also wrote an extraordinary book of philosophy
which is now a New Age classic in esoteric circles called The
Scripture of the Golden Dawn. This work of philosophy examines
esoteric Buddhism, something that hardly any western scholars
had done in the early 1950s. This extremely hard to find book is
testimony to a new spirit in academic research. Kerouac had a
unique understanding of both Mahayana and Theravada
Buddhism but became extremely knowledgeable about the Pure
Land School and its close ties with Zen Buddhism. Kerouac was
one of the first writers in the western world to see the relationship
between this form of Buddhism and Christianity but especially
142

The New Idealism
Catholicism. At the time many eastern scholars could not clearly
decipher and understand the unique relationship between the two,
Kerouac’s influence cannot be underestimated. His distain of
academic materialist philosophy was overwhelmingly denounced
in his writings. By the time the hippies started to flex their
muscles Kerouac had been elevated to the status of a God. Many
say that he was one of the first writers to speak eloquently about
the major environment issues of the future. He strongly deplored
the materialist America of the 1950s and called for a Spiritual
Revolution based on Jazz, Buddhism and tantric sexuality. This
aptly sums up Kerouac’s position in his novel The Dharma Bums.
“The attitude for the Bard, the Zen Lunacy Bard of old desert
paths, see the whole thing is a world full of rucksack wanderers,
Dharma Bums refusing to subscribe to the general demand that
they consume production and therefore have to work for the
privilege of consuming, all that crap they didn’t really want
anyway such as refrigerators, TV sets, cars, at least new fancy
cars, certain hair oils and deodorants and general junk you always
see a week later in the garbage anyway, all of them imprisoned in
a system of work produce, consume, work, produce, consume, I
sees a vision of a great rucksack revolution thousands of even
millions of young Americans wandering around with rucksacks,
going up to mountains to pray, making children laugh and old
men glad, making young girls happy and old girls happier, all of
them Zen Lunatics who go about writing poems that happen to
appear in their heads for no reason and also by being kind and
also by strange unexpected acts keep giving visions of eternal
freedom to everybody and all living creatures.” Here of course
Kerouac is pre-empting the entire Hippie movement because this
was written in the late 1950s.
143

The New Idealism
As the Beat movement became more famous it joined with
other progressive movements and even eventually linked up with
the Frankfurt School philosophers such as Herbert Marcuse who
was by the 1960s teaching at UCLA in California. It is important
to point out that the Beat Generation was born between 1910 and
1932. Those born in that Generation can be said also to be the
War Generation, the Hippie Generation, or the Woodstock
Generation, are those people born between 1933 and 1955. The
next Generation, the Punk Generation or Generation X, were born
between 1955 and 1977.
Thus it is extremely important to realise the impact that the
Beats had on the following generations. The Beats laid the
groundwork for the New Idealism. The Beats introduced the
concept of a mental vision in reality and popularised it and made
it famous throughout the second half of the 20th century.
The impact the Beats had on the international counterculture
was epic. They virtually single handedly started the
counterculture which later espoused Left Wing Spiritual politics
advocating feminism, ecology, gay liberation and consciousness
expansion. All of this is at the basis of the practical side and the
political side of the New Idealism. Other very important Beat
writers included Gary Synder, Alan Watts (an important Buddhist
philosopher), Gregory Corso, Lei Roy Jones, Diane Deprima,
Ann Sexton, Michael McClure and Neal Cassidy. In the case of
Cassidy, there is a clear connection to the latest in New Age
thought. Cassidy was a friend of Kerouac and became obsessed
with Edgar Cayce, a very famous New Age channeller.
One major impact of the Beats is that their influence not only
changed world literature but went right into journalism and
science. The scientific community by the 1950s was clearly very
144

The New Idealism
interested in spiritual phenomenon as the Beat legacy started to
make its grip. This is an extremely important point because the
generation after the Beats, the Hippies, were extremely well
educated on the whole. Of course, the hippie movement was a
worldwide phenomenon that radically altered western
consciousness forever.
The hippies were very interested in the rise of scientific
culture and much of the hippie generation were extremely well
educated. It became the first generation in the history of the
modern world to experience mass education as the gains of social
democracy started to take its grip. The percentage of hippies who
went to university and did high level research degrees was large.
By the mid 1960s the flavour of the Beat phenomenon moved
onto the university campus throughout the world and the hippies
became the first radical students enmasse to join, together and
start amazing protests that became the symbol of the 1960s. Every
area of progressive thought became enmeshed in the hippie
movement. The university campus throughout all western,
Australian and North American campuses became symbols of
free thinking and intellectual experimentation. This force
radically influenced science. Hippies infiltrated every area of the
sciences and a huge number of scientific manuals were produced.
As the hippie explosion became a symbol of an international
spiritual awakening, the following of science and Hindu and
Buddhist philosophies and religions plus western esoteric
mysticism became standard. It became common for poets to also
be mathematicians and physicists and the strict borderline
between art and the sciences started to breakdown. Obviously it
was during the 1960s that physicists such as Fritjof Capra and
Geoffrey Chew started devising their extraordinary insights into
145

The New Idealism
physics and started talking about it in encounter groups and the
like. Major experimental physicists such as Jack Sarfartti had
been credited with starting a radical group of physicists in
California to rethink their physics in a spiritual manner. This new
vibrant feeling spilled into the entire West Coast hippie scene
which had become one of the music capitals of the world.
By the time the New Physics had fully spilled into the hippie
West Coast American literary scene an extraordinary amount of
new novels and books of poetry spilled into print. The entire
structure of the novel during this time started to change radically.
This had been anticipated by the Beats and also the French New
novel that radically experimented with narrative structure. Time
and space in fiction writing all of a sudden became radically
experimental. This was a clear result of the new insights of the
New Physics.
One of the first major new hippie writers to emerge during
this period was Richard Brautigan, an absolutely extraordinary
genius who lived in San Francisco during the height of the Hippie
era and who gained world-wide fame with more than 10 amazing
novels and many volumes of poetry. Although Brautigan was an
autodiadact act became one of the first novelists in the western
world to have extraordinary bizarre philosophical mutations
throughout his works. Throughout his work there is references to
quantum theory and eastern thought and he came to represent one
of the major New Voices of the New Idealism following the
Beats. It was very much Brautigan’s work that launched many
new novelists who followed a similar attitude despite always
showing individuality. These other novelists have included such
extremely well-known literary innovators as Tom Robbins,
Robert Persig, Kathy Acker, Lenard Cohen to name a few well
146

The New Idealism
known ones. All of this type of literary fiction highlighted a new
form of literary imagination that concentrated on supernatural,
mystical and notions of philosophical idealism.
Never before had this tradition been exercised to the extent
that these writers did. Every area of the writer’s imagination were
taken to the limit. Again, the 1960s was the beginning of this very
radical direction in literature. It also made spirituality radical, a
concept that had earlier been dismissed by existentialists and
materialists.
During the mid 1960s and early 1950s agnostic
exististentialism, structuralism and the terrible scientific
principles of the Vienna School and Logical Positivists had a
fairly large impact on the world literary community. Paris had
still been seen as a major if not the major intellectual scene of the
planet. Irish writers James Joyce and Samual Beckett had gone to
live in Paris in the first half of the 20th century. The literary avant
garde had been greatly impacted by existentialism and Left Wing
Materialism yet Paris and other centres always had the roots of
philosophical Idealism also being strongly felt.
However, during the 1960s, the new world spiritualism
captivated the literary scene. Herman Hesse, the extraordinary
German Nobel Prize winning author, wrote many novels dealing
with these concepts. Hesse went on to become a symbol of the
hippies. Also, Hesse was considered a major European novelist
who was dealing with major spiritual issues. Even within the
existentialist camp there was also a sympathy towards spiritual
issues and writing. Although Albert Camus and John Sartre were
proclaimed atheists it was never totally disregarded exactly what
form it would take, such as a form of Spinoza’s monist pantheism
– which is not really godless but recognises that god is in
147

The New Idealism
everything. It was with spirit that experimental spiritual writers
evolved during the 1960s. And this spirit certainly highlighted the
New Idealism and made readers more willing to investigate some
of the amazing aspects of the New Idealism.
Another very important aspect of the literary explosion of the
1960s was the fact that throughout the western world thousands
of little magazines, newsletters and publishing companies
evolved. The Beats had initially gotten the ball rolling but by the
1960s the number of new magazines was unprecedented. This
trend continued right up into the middle of the 1980s and many
small press books never went to large multi-national companies.
Another aspect of this was that academic work quickly became
part of the counterculture and many books reflecting the spirit of
the New Idealism were published both in philosophy and in
literature. Thus a war became apparent within the academic
community with most conservative materialist books being
published by academic publishing houses or multinationals while
the new thinking of people such as Fritjof Capra and the plethora
of fiction writers and poets became part of a huge Underground
network of writers, thinkers, poets and scientists who had
developed views that were counter to the Newtonian-Cartesian
paradigm.
However, by the middle of the l960s this situation had
changed a little with some writers going over to the establishment
publishing companies. However, the bulk of the serious New Age
philosophy books have still to this day been published by
alternative publishing companies and houses. Fiction that
supports the New Idealism continues to be published by both
alternative and establishment presses so there is clearly a mix.
148

The New Idealism
The generation that followed the hippies, the Punk
Generation or Generation X, were born between 1956 and 1977.
This generation had continued mainly in the Underground to
reveal the astounding implications of the New Idealism. Novels,
poets, music and works of philosophy are clearly being published
that support spiritual philosophies. The early punk literature and
music of the late 1970s was always peppered with a large dose of
Spiritualism which merged into the famous Gothic movements of
the 1980s Punk scene throughout the world. This New Wave
Gothic Punk movement swept the Western world in music and
continued the philosophies of the early counter-culture that was
started by the Beats in the 1950s.
In recent times some major New Age texts have been
published by major multi-national publishing houses. Penguin, for
example, recently published A Course In Miracles, which is
regarded in the worldwide New Age movement as a major text.
But many other major New Age writers such as Joshua Stone,
David Ash and others have continued to published with
alternative presses,
Of course the New Idealism also stretched into the other arts
and during the second half of the 20th century the visual arts in
the counter culture were highly influenced by spiritualism and the
concept of Philosophical Idealism. One of the most obvious
examples of this is that of Abstract Expressionism whose most
famous example is Jackson Pollack. This form of painting freed
up the idea of abstraction, or even the notion of the mental. This
form of art and other forms of avant garde art certainly captured
the hippie and counter culture spirit of the time.
In music another major example can be seen in the explosion
of the folk music tradition where such famous performers such as
149

The New Idealism
Joan Baez and Bob Dylan espoused the spiritual life and again
this was reflected in their music. The rock music scene, of course,
was deeply influenced by spiritual ideas. A perfect example of
this is The Doors, where lead singer Jim Morrison constantly sang
about the spiritual relationship between humanity and the earth
itself. The Beatles were also all highly influenced by Indian
philosophy while John Lennon and Yoko Ono had become Sai
Baba devotees. The other Beatles had become devotees of the
founder of Transcendental Meditation, the Maharishi.
The world famous singer Michael Jackson was a very strong
devotee of Sai Baba. All of the band members of the Rolling
Stones have expressed major spiritual concerns as well as most
other famous and respected rock acts. The Punk music tradition is
full of spiritual awareness and most of the famous punk acts
followed some spiritual tradition.
A major creative area that has followed and promoted the
New Idealism has been in the film and motion picture area. Many
major Hollywood films have had New Age themes or major
issues of spirituality. The famous martial artist Steven Seagal has
been a devoted Sai Baba devotee for many years. Yet other major
films continue to depict the role of spirituality in our lives.
Hollywood, of course, has also become famous for promoting
films looking at the role of aliens. These sorts of films have been
around now for more than 20 years with the most famous first
film called ET made by Steven Spielberg. Of course these films
have had a huge impact on the public and people now talking
openly about the existence of life from other planets. And of
course The New Physics would certainly support the possibility
that there is life on other planets. Using David Ash’s theory, a
further scientific claim can be made to support how aliens can
150

The New Idealism
come to our solar system. It says that aliens could simply fly into
a portal of super energy (energy faster than the speed of light) and
travel between star systems. What these aliens could do is simply
think of what star system they want to go to when they travel into
the super energy portal. As shown before, in super energy there is
no space and time so a craft would dematerialise and then re-enter
into E=mc squared in a new solar system.
The debate within naturalism and the impact of the
New Idealism
Naturalism has become in the past two centuries a very
powerful materialist philosophy that was a direct offspring of the
Cartesian-Newtonian revolution in science. In its most basic
philosophy it is the view that nature is all there is and all basic
truths are truths of nature. Another major interpretation is that it is
a form of philosophical monism according to which whatever
exists or happens is natural. Another is: “the view that everything
is natural, i.e. that everything there is belongs to the world of
nature, and can be studied by the methods appropriate for
studying that world.” Another view of naturalism is that it is a
philosophical movement that “wishes to use the methods of
science, evidence, and reason to understand nature and place the
human species within it.”
Naturalism says that the universe consists only of natural
elements such as matter and energy and that non-material
elements such as mind, ideas or forms of philosophical idealism
are a result of material forces. The philosophy also radically
rejects any form of supernaturalism because only nature is real
151

The New Idealism
and therefore supernaturalism is non-real. Naturalism is thus a
so-called metaphysical philosophy opposed mainly to
supernaturalism.
According to Texan philosopher Steven Schafersman,
naturalism is a subset of metaphysical realism and that it is not an
ethical system. He says it is part of naturalistic humanism and that
it is one of the most important personal worldview philosophies
opposed to supernaturalism and religions offering
transcendentalism. He claims that philosophical naturalism exists
in two forms – that of ontological or metaphysical naturalism
with the other being methodological naturalism. In scientific
terms, the truth of naturalism could be considered reliable
knowledge, since naturalism’s statements have a great amount of
empirical evidence in support of them. It has a highly – reasoned
logical structure, and the statements of this structure have been
repeatedly and skeptically tested and corroborated. Such a truth,
however, as with all such scientific truths, must be held
skeptically and tentatively, since it is only reliable knowledge, not
absolute ultimate truth.
The two primary sources of naturalism in philosophy is that
it shows materialism in metaphysics and empiricism in
epistemology. Schafersman says that naturalism does not always
necessitate a commitment to materialism. Materialism claims that
non-material elements are produced by material products.
Certainly most philosophical naturalists today are materialists,
and methodological materialism is probably universally adopted
among scientists today, but idealism or dualism could be true and
naturalism would still be viable, says Schafersman.
He points out that idealism generally is a legitimate stance
within naturalism but is not very popular among naturalists. With
152

The New Idealism
regards to science, critical thinking is used to discover and
develop knowledge about nature. Critical thinking has been
epitomized as “the scientific method” in science and many
philosophers claim is the best path to reliable knowledge in all
areas of inquiry, not just in science. “Naturalism is not an
assumption or presupposition on the part of scientists, a common
claim by critics of science; it is, instead, a hypothesis that has
been tested and repeatedly corroborated, and so has become
reliable knowledge itself,” writes Schafersman.
Before going on to show how the New Physics would
radically rechange much of the charge of philosophical naturalism
I want to establish a firm outline of both the history and function
of naturalism. Naturalism can be seen as challenging the cogency
of the cosmological, teleological and moral arguments which
holds that the universe requires no supernatural cause. In fact, the
universe is self-existent, self-explanatory, self-operating and
self-directing. Naturalism says that the world process is not
teleological and anthropocentric, but in fact is purposeless,
deterministic and that the natural world is the whole of reality.
The metaphysics usually always tends to be monistic while
humanity is viewed as a coordinate with other parts of nature and
naturalistic psychology emphasises the physical basis of human
behaviour.
The history of naturalism owes its origin and early élan in a
large part to a faith in science. Partly because of the hold that
idealistic philosophies had enjoyed in Europe, scientism served
not only to undermine metaphysical causes but also to destroy the
role of mind and the will. The rationalistic positivism embodied
in the systems of Comte and Spencer formulated a theoretical
153

The New Idealism
justification, for scientism and entailed a faith in social and
technological progress.
Scientism not only served to undermine metaphysical causes
and goals but also to destroy the autonomy of idealism generally.
As naturalism developed there continued to be opposition to its
philosophy in the form of German Idealism as well as the rise of
British Idealism, in the form of Bradley.
The role of Naturalism has had a very powerful impact on all
societies throughout the world and has helped to continue the
materialist paradigm. I strongly believe that although naturalism
can be separated from some metaphysical debate, it is clear that
this philosophy has been connected to the Cartesian-Newtonian
materialist philosophies which have dominated materialism
throughout the academic institutions of the world. And of course
naturalism has used the so-called advances of Newtonian science
to make and establish its very widespread philosophy.
Generally, the New Idealism would be opposed to most
forms of Naturalism. Yet if Naturalism concurs with the notion of
the “natural” order of things as a result of scientific analysis then
Naturalism is indeed a philosophy which would support
philosophical Idealism. Well-known materialist philosophers such
as Daniel Dennett have based much of their arguments on the
old-fashion notion of Naturalism. Within cognitive science,
naturalism is still the ruler. Yet it must be stressed that this is very
much the case because the cognitive sciences have not caught up
with the major developments in the New Physics. This is an
extremely important point. As our cognitive sciences wallow in
the fog of uncertain knowledge they continue to adhere to an
out-of-date form of naturalism. And of course this reaches right
into the argument of Naturalism versus philosophical Idealism. It
154

The New Idealism
is ironic to consider the fact that most cognitive scientists would
not even understand these days what philosophical Idealism is, let
alone understand the major changes in quantum theory that has
radically reintroduced philosophical Idealism.
A very important point is that the New Idealism is not
against cognitive science. Cognitive science is ultimately based
on materialism and certainly not scientifically plausible. This is
because the New Physics certainly does affect all the cognitive
sciences. This goes right to the heart of a very important debate
which rages with many philosophers and scientists alike. The
structure of the brain, is again based on extremely materialist
aspects and thus again is not based on contemporary quantum
theory. To my knowledge this area of knowledge has not even
been attempted by anyone because the notion of the New
Idealism is only now coming back into the forefront of our
knowledge. Thus the New Idealism is not anti-cognitive science
yet the new knowledge based on developments in quantum theory
has not yet been developed by the cognitive sciences.
In many ways the old form of Naturalism was highly based
on the philosophy of Descartes with the notion that the extended
substance represented all natural phenomenon. And of course as
the New Physics has well and truly demonstrated, the Cartesian
system is not compatible with the New Physics. Again, this is a
very important point because a great deal of contemporary
philosophical debate is mooted around this point. And of course
this reaches right into the nature of the Cartesian tradition and its
base in academic institutions. This reaches right into the heart of
materialist philosophy and is deeply flawed and of course is
deeply unscientific.
155

The New Idealism
Cartesian philosophy is profoundly unscientific in terms of
quantum theory and the New Physics. And Naturaism is deeply
based on Cartesianism. The opposite of Naturalism is of course
super-naturalism as we have mentioned before. Yet is must be
pointed out that the New Physics and the New Idealism generally
is based on a supernatural premise. Firstly, if SPIRIT is creating
matter then the natural is supernatural – if you understand what I
am saying. Indeed, spirit is creating and manifesting our presence.
And another angle can also be taken in this extremely interesting
area. The New Age British physicists David Ash and Peter Hewitt
have of course introduced the term of super energy to explain
another energy which is faster than light. Ash and Hewitt claim
that both energy (e=mc squared) and super energy are produced
by thought. They say that super energy is the key to the
supernatural. This directly is opposed to naturalism. They say that
super energy would explain acupuncture, and the ability of many
holy men and to perform amazing miracles. They also say it may
be the key to interstellar space travel because other civilisations
may have the ability to direct their space craft into pockets of
super energy in which they would travel through the speed of
light. The ability of matter to go through the speed of light is of
course extremely interesting because it would mean that energy
and super energy are mutually exchangeable. This is an
astounding possibility and may explain claims by New Age
followers how certain physical miracles can happen such as when
someone in a car can drive straight through another car even
though the cars collided. What could be happening here is the
interchange of energy – of energy and super energy?
So in fact there are two levels in which the notion of
Naturalism is being attacked within the role of the New Idealism.
156

The New Idealism
The New Physics would totally disregard the old patterns of
Naturalism. Both the old fashioned Naturalism and the New
Idealism are based on a sort of holism and monism yet the
substances in which they are based are totally different.
The question of whether Naturalism can have mental states
has never been explained or outlined clearly because the role of
the New Physics is now only starting to become clearer and
clearer. But obviously if a New Naturalism evolved based on the
idea that everything in the Universe is Consciousness, Mind, a
mental substance or spirit then this would be compatible with the
New Idealism.
There is another strain of Naturalism that is much more
sympathetic to philosophical Idealism if not even a form of
Idealism. This form of Naturalism is often called “Natural
Theology”. It was invented by St Thomas Aquinas as an
argument for the existence of God, which is similar to the one
produced by Aristotle about the prime mover. The cosmological
argument says that everything has a cause, so eventually there
must be one big thing – or God.
Yet even this form of Naturalism can be used to go against
philosophical Idealism. This is because if, like the Cartesian
tradition, God created all the material substance, that substance
may not be a form of spirit or Mind, which is the requirement for
Idealism. But the main thrust of philosophical Idealism is that the
Universe IS some form of mental projection
Thus, for the New Idealism to be drawn into the Naturalist
debate it is important for new work to be done by Naturalism
itself. It has to explain itself out of its current illegal scientific
status. Currently any argument within Naturalism cannot be taken
seriously until this is achieved.
157

The New Idealism
Applied Philosophy and the New Idealism
In the past 30 years philosophy has branched out into other
areas of life which is outside the official academic domain
structures of universities. In the Anglo-American world
philosophy is still nevertheless pursued at university while in
some European countries such as Germany and French, it is
widely taught in schools.
While psychologists managed to find a professional structure
outside universities, philosophers were not so fortunate. Although
philosophers are now being consulted increasingly in a
professional role such as bio-ethics, the role of philosophers still
has a long way to go. Most psychology is based on philosophy yet
philosophers are not allowed to set up a practice and call
themselves a philosopher. The reason why this situation has
occurred is extremely complex and has created a very hard and
big problem for philosophers to conquer. The “old school” of
philosopher believed that it should remain in the universities,
isolated and elite from the bulk of the population. To this view
you could add the notion of philosophy being an amateur subject.
The “New School” of philosopher also wants this but is willing to
make concessions like in the area of bio-ethics.
Out of all of this comes the New Idealism and certainly
doesn’t pussyfoot around with Applied Philosophy and its
consequences. Philosophical Idealism takes the notion of Applied
Philosophy extremely seriously and would be much more
ambitious towards such a venture than most 20th century
philosophers, which is what I call most academic philosophers at
present because they have not even come across the New Idealism
and are virtually science illiterate.
158

The New Idealism
The New Idealism would take philosophy into every
classroom in schools and universities. Philosophers would be
employed at various levels to teach at schools and through TAFE
colleges. Philosophers would also be widely employed
throughout the medical system to explain why certain medicines
work metaphysically. This is extremely important because most
of alternative medicine is based on some form of Idealism. Most
of the acupuncture nodes in Chinese medicine are based on
philosophical Idealism. The importance, then, of explaining
philosophy to a patient is then extremely important.
Within the notion of super energy (which is energy faster
than the speed of light) fully explains chi energy and how Chinese
medicine works. This has been well outlined by the New Age
physicist David Ash who says that super energy is where the
blockages in energy come from. Thus, it would then be very
important for the philosopher to work hand in hand with the
acupuncturist to explain to a patient the philosophy behind a
treatment.
And, of course, this would go throughout all alternative
medicine -usually called energy medicine because many
alternative therapists say that illness comes from blocked energy
whether it be in etheric matter (super energy) or in energy slower
than the speed of light. Of course, this would mean that hospitals
employing acupuncturists (where in Chinese influenced countries
such as China itself, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and others)
entire hospitals are based on acupuncture.
The role then of philosophers would be to act as a medical
back-up for the medical practitioner or technician. This is Applied
Philosophical Idealism and this is only one area of medicine
where this could happen. Each doctor in the west could employ a
159

The New Idealism
philosopher in their local surgery to advise and give advice on
philosophical issues relating to health. Again, the philosopher and
the medical practitioner would need to be trained in the
philosophical consequences of medicine. The philosopher would
be employed by the state and paid according to each visit that a
patient had to them. This is not fantasy. Philosophers urgently
need to upgrade the importance of their profession. And the New
Idealism is the perfect vehicle to do this.
Other major areas of medicine but particularly in alternative
medicine such as cancer treatment, AIDS therapies, reflexology,
nutrition, plus many other areas could all be outlined by applied
philosophers.
Superstring Theory and Conclusion
Superstring theory, a major theory of theoretical quantum
physics of the last 20 years, also fully supports philosophical
idealism.
The theory is essentially saying particles are nothing but an
underlying wave form. The wave was dubbed a “super string”
because it behaves very much like a violin string. Thus, the theory
says there are billions upon billions of “unseen” strings pervading
the universe, and their different frequencies give rise to all the
matter and energy in the Universe. In his well-known book,
Quantum Healing, Depak Chopra says that the prefix “super”
indicates that these strings actually reside far beyond our limited
four-dimensional reality.
“No one will ever see them, no matter how powerful our
instruments becomes,” writes Chopra. “To clarify what a
superstring is, physicist Michio Kaku gives an analogy to music:
160

The New Idealism
imagine that a violin is enclosed out of sight in a box. As its
strings vibrate, different pitches, chords, sequences of notes, and
timbers are produced,” writes Chopra.
“If you were an alien who did not know what music is, you
would find each of these things completely different from one
another – the note C might be like a hydrogen atom, while E-flat
was a photon.
“Only by opening the box and seeing that indeed every sound
came from one violin would you be convinced that they had a
unified source.”
Chopra says that in the same way, nature’s fundamental field
is constantly vibrating and producing variations upon the same
“notes”, but that our senses are set up so that they turn this
sameness into differences. He says that only be exposing the
super strings would the underlying unity be evident.
Well-known American physicist and superstring specialist
Paul Sirag gives a very good outline of the history of superstring
theory and how it evolved.
Sirag states that Albert Einstein in 1915 introduced the idea
that gravity was to be explained as the warping of
four-dimensional spacetime. Sirag is a theoretical physicist whose
theories not only deal with superstring but encompasses the age
and size of the universe as well as the number and nature of all
subatomic particles.
He says that many physicists had doubts about the reality of
the 4-dimensionality of spacetime (as a unified geometrical whole
which could be warped). However, these doubts were erased by
the dramatic verification of Einstein’s gravity theory (called the
General Theory of Relativity) in 1919, when a group of British
161

The New Idealism
astronomers led by Arthur Eddington measured the bending of
starlight grazing the sun during a solar eclipse.
Dr John Hagelin, a Harvard-trained quantum physicist and
renowned for developing a highly successful grand unified field
theory based on superstring, claims superstring theory is
developing a true physics of mind and consciousness, which can
explain scientifically the deep physical mechanisms that underlie
philosophical idealism.
Hegelin believes that superstring theory can explain some of
the mysteries of the mind but goes further in saying that this new
theory accurately describes higher realities. “A remarkable feature
of all superstring theories is the presence of ‘shadow matter or
‘hidden sector’ matter. It appears plausible, theoretically, that this
shadow matter aggregates around our physical bodies, and may
actually constitute a subtler level of our physiology (i.e., a subtle
body) that ‘thinks.’ Moreover, if shadow matter possesses the
remarkable properties that we believe it does, it may provide a
natural link between our material brain and the Unified Field of
Consciousness,” he writes.
Thus, Hegelin here is going right to the heart of
Philosophical Idealism with these ideas. The notion that this
“shadow matter” is actually thought clearly reveals that
superstring theory is also sympathetic to Philosophical idealism.
This hidden sector matter apparently seems to be the missing link
between, perhaps, energy and energy faster than light. Here, the
similarities between David Ash’s remarkable theory of super
energy and super string theory can be made. This extraordinary
link shows that those at the forefront of both superstring theory
and the physics of consciousness are finding a great deal of
common ground. It must be stated here that superstring theory is
162

The New Idealism
still not accepted as finished business and is yet another theory
that is at the cutting edge of physics research.
Hagelin says that superstring theory is helping to develop a
true physics of mind and consciousness. “As a quantum physicist
and brain researcher, I have long been frustrated that our ‘modern’
scientific understanding of consciousness is so primitive. There is
no physical explanation of ‘mind’ or ‘thought’ in terms of the
known particles and forces, a fact which has caused many of my
scientific colleagues to deny the very existence of consciousness.”
He says that he has made use of the most fundamental state
of human awareness – pure consciousness with the Unified Field,
or “Superstring” field, which lies beyond space and time at the
Planck scale of Nature’s functioning. “What we have lacked, so
far, is a concrete link between this fundamental field of
consciousness and the material brain i.e., between the physics of
the Planck scale and the physics of our brain cells, which are a
million-billion-trillion times larger. This giant gap between pure
consciousness and the gross physical body, between the Unified
Field and the brain, is the domain of mind. We need a physical
understanding of it – and the conventional forces and particles are
not enough.”
The famous super string physicist Paul Sirag puts forward his
philosophical idealist position by stating that superstring theory
shows Consciousness is the basic description of the hyperworld.
He fully describes this in a well known paper entitled the “Roots
of Consciousness”.
“By the very nature, however, of the unification of the
competing superstring theories (and by the embedding of the
lower-dimensional polytopes required for unified field theory) are
implicit in some vast unification which entails consciousness in a
163

The New Idealism
universal sense. To me the hierarchy of the embedding structures
suggests a hierarchy of realms of consciousness – or realities, for
short,” Sirag states.
Sirag has said recently in an interview exactly what other
Physics of Consciousness physicists have been saying. “The body
is just a shadow that is projected, so to speak, from hyperspace,
and so there’s then in a sense no problem, because our internal
experience is not just connected to the hyperspace, it’s an intimate
piece of the hyperspace, in other words. Our own minds are
projections from a much greater mind, and so on,” Sirag said.
This new area of physics is now called the Physics of
Consciousness and has raised many profound questions about our
current reality. The area not only combines super string theory but
all new theories of theoretical physics, from bootstrap theory,
David Bohm’s Implicate Order theory, David Ash’s SUPER
ENERGY (and my personal favorite) to many others. However,
people are still deeply disturbed by the implications of the New
Physics. Both materialists, Christians, Moslems and even
fundamentalist Buddhists and Hindus find some of the major
concepts of the New Physics virtually frightening.
Words and concepts such as mind, consciousness, thought,
spirit, abstraction, void, dream to mention some of the major
ones, are extremely difficult for many people to grasp at a
quantum level. And this has been one of the main reasons for the
lack of wide public understanding of what is happening in
theoretical physics and the Physics of Consciousness in general.
These concepts are in fact much harder to grasp than even some
of the most obscure mathematical formulas that can be verified.
Although such theories as superstring theory have developed
in their own right, the Physics of Consciousness is now also being
164

The New Idealism
relentlessly investigated by new physicists. Yet research into the
Physics of Consciousness is bringing together the Arts and the
Sciences in an unprecedented fashion. One of the biggest
problems for theoretical physics has been its inability to be
simply and coherently understood by the average student and
person. This has been mainly the mistake of conservative Left
Brained physicists not willing to investigate new areas and the
very nature of our Cartesian society. These physicists think like
car mechanics while those who worked or followed the Arts, were
traditionally “Anti-science”. Now all of this is radically breaking
down because of the Physics of Consciousness.
Concepts such as thought and Mind as being the fabric of
matter radically confronts anyone who considers such notions. It
is simply extraordinary to consider such a reality. Yet this is the
reality that has to be considered because of the Physics of
Consciousness. As has been continually pointed out in this book,
there has been a long history in philosophy, in many societies and
cultures, that Thought or Mind, creates reality, or matter. Yet this
remains isolated and out of reach to the average person educated
deeply in Cartesian/Newtonian science and thinking. The
absolutely astonishing fact that matter is being created by
thought, seems to be continually passed over or simply not
recognised by the general public.
Quantum theory has been saying now for nearly 50 years that
Thought, Consciousness and Mind creates Matter. Many famous
quantum physicists have been stating this for a long time, as
revealed in this thesis. Yet this is why there is such confusion
around at the moment about quantum theory. The problem with
Einstein is that he was far too left brained, far too deductive, or
rather, reductionist. Nevertheless Einstein was brilliant yet he and
165

The New Idealism
some of the early quantum theorists relied far too heavily on
mathematical formula and equations. Despite this there was also a
plethora of physicists at the time who thought of the New Physics
in philosophical terms. And of course some of these physicists
were philosophical idealists. Some of the recent superstring
theories have helped to complicate the situation despite many
extremely elegant superstring physicists such as Brian Green.
These physicists, and includes such famous physicists as Paul
Davies, write with clarity and with a straightforward approach.
Most of the leading physicists of today are also extremely good
communicators and writers. However, the old reliance on
equations has left a lasting impression. This is why so many
people think that research into quantum theory involves maths
and formal logic on a very extensive scale. And of course all
mathematical formula and logic can always be expressed
succinctly through the written word. Some quantum theory
obviously does involve complex logic and maths but the major
philosophical theory of IDEALISM is now taken very seriously
as part of research in theoretical physics. And thus, this should
also be taken seriously by people outside of the physics and
philosophy community. If we turn to philosophy and literature,
there is a reoccurring theme throughout the past four centuries
that Thought/Mind/Consciousness creates matter. The famous
German idealist movement and the very famous Romantic
movement based their entire view on the notion/fact that reality is
being produced by Thought/Mind/Consciousness. If science and
literary minded people can join forces now, major gains will be
made in making people understand some of the more complex
issues in quantum theory.
166

The New Idealism
Of course many philosophers are very well studied in the
area of science and basic quantum theory and many philosophers
now regard themselves as scientists more than philosophers, but
this has been the reason why these philosophers have not
advanced in understanding quantum theory. These philosophers
themselves went far too reductionist and lost their humanities
based understanding of nature and reality. Whether a person is
standing at a bus stop, driving a car, watching TV, working in a
plastics factory, being a street cleaner, if they understood that
their entire reality is nothing but layers of thought or in fact one
giant mental image, an entirely different approach to existence
would be followed. Holistic thinking is urgently needed.
Our society needs to revolutionise this major scientific
breakthrough and cut through the terrible unscientific reality that
is propagated not only in the daily media that is deeply
Newtonian/Cartesian, but also in such so-called esteemed
scientific journals such as Nature and New Scientist. For too long
Materialist/Reductionist/Cartesian/Newtonian writers have
dominated the means of communication. These so-called
scientists have created a nightmare world of confusion for the
average reader. Now is the time to stop them in their tracks. The
Cartesianism throughout Western and Eastern cultures and
society is rife. Yet the concept of philosophical idealism has a
long history both in Western and Eastern countries. The task now
is to radically reignite it and bring it back into the “mainstream”
debate. The “mainstream” debate is currently dictated by quantum
illiterate journalists and academics (ie, postmodernists and
analytical thinkers), whose out-of-date and incorrect research has
made them powerful and created a very obtuse, unscientific and
strange intellectual climate at present. The rise of 20th century
167

The New Idealism
materialism can be seen in such areas as psychological
behaviouralism. This discipline is still widely pursued yet has so
completely been discredited that it boggles the mind at the how it
is allowed to continue. For example, most mental illnesses are
still treated in this deeply Cartesian discipline. Those early
behavioural psychologists completely rended central concepts in
Idealism as useless – thought, consciousness, mind, ideas – were
merely material processes. Yet now it appears the opposite is true.
The tragedy is that most people who have not received a critical
education (ie, those people who question both materialist dogma
within and out of universities) accept without question the
precepts of these materialist psychologists. This reaches into the
heart of our society – from bank workers, travel agents, butchers,
child care workers, everywhere. The advances of the
“transpersonal” psychology revolution of the 1960s is now
virtually laughed at by these dangerous and sometimes
“out-of-control” health “professionals”. Thus, what is needed is an
entire overhaul of the education system to stop the confusion that
is promoted everywhere – in universities, in the media, the family
and the workplace. This is now vital. So the joining of the arts
and sciences at the high quantum research level is needed but also
at other levels in a bid to introduce the average person to the
extraordinary world of the Physics of Consciousness.
At the end of the day the New Idealism has meant that we have a
better understanding of the New Age and the Galactic Federation
aliens who are surrounding this planet trying to help this planet
into a better future. They now want a world government based in
China’s Sichuan province so we could develop vast new
technologies that would all be based on philosophical idealism.
Idealism is the key to the space future, to everything. For idealism
168

The New Idealism
to develop and flourish, we must open our own minds to know
that aliens exist, that they are here to help. Aliens travel in super
energy faster than the speed of light using the power of thought
itself. That is the key to interstellar space travel. And that is our
future.
To travel in a space ship across the galaxy we need to
understand that super energy (energy faster than light produced
by thought) is a reality and that to utilise super energy we need to
know that the speed of thought can materialise objects at will.
Aliens have said this. And we need to learn about it more. Super
energy explains how Sai Baba can teleport and explains the
concept of angels and Chinese chi energy. Thus this scientific
revolution must start to make inroads. But it is up to us.
169

The New Idealism
INTEGRAL MEDITATION
By Michael Dargaville
Integral meditation was founded by a famous Australian
psychiatrist called Ainslie Meares. He developed this technique
while in his Melbourne clinic during the 1960s, and wrote many
influential books including RELIEF WlTHOUT DRUGS
(Penguin}.
Mearc’s technique was first used to fight mental illness,
especially anxiety, and has been taken up by some leading
Victorian therapists. In the 1970s this meditation technique
gained wider recognition when Ian Gawler, a young Melbourne
vet, cured his lung and extensive bone cancer.
Gawler at the time had been given just two weeks to live. He
went on to attain extremely wide public recognition and wrote
two best-selling books, including Peace of Mind. Gawler had lost
half his leg prior to coming across the technique because doctors
in those days thought surgery would be his best option.
Unlike other meditation techniques, which Gawler calls
ACTIVE such as mantra meditation, INTEGRAL meditation is
passive! The difference between the two forms is that active
meditation increases the secretion of the hormone cortisone from
the adrenalin gland which is the cause of STRESS throughout the
body and immune system. However, integral meditation does not
cause the secretion of cortisone and is passive. Thus, it is called
Health Meditation.
The technique is simple. For the first 10 days you
progressively relax your groups of muscles from your feet up by
flexing each muscle group for 5 seconds and then relaxing them
170

The New Idealism
for 5 seconds. After 10 days of this, you change the routine and
instead imagine a WAVE of relaxation over all your muscles at
the same time, instead of physically doing each muscle group.
This is the essence of Mind/Body medicine because by simply
using the wave leads to deeper stages of meditation.
All you have to do from here is sit in an armless chair. Just
be a passive observer and allow the thoughts to come and go and
just imagine a wave of relaxation over all your muscles every
time a thought comes. Just apply the wave when thoughts come.
Don’t force the thoughts away. Just let them come and go and
don’t fight them off. They will go by themselves if you apply the
WAVE of relaxation over all your muscles. Remember, just be a
passive observer and use the relaxation wave when a thought
comes. If a particular section of muscles in your body keep being
tense concentrate the wave on that area. It’s that simple. You can
meditate up to 3 hours every day, especially if you have a chronic
disease like cancer. Using the wave leads to higher states of
meditation. Gawler has written a chart of levels the body’s
mental/physiology goes through during Integral Meditation. It is
well worth anyone wanting to know an in-depth understanding of
the technique to purchase Gawler’s book called Peace of Mind
with this chart. But briefly, the chart says there are six major
stages during this technique. The first stage uses the relaxation
technique and the mind is active, with lots of thoughts. The
second stage involves still using the Relaxation Response and the
thoughts come less often. The third stage still involves using the
WAVE of relaxation and the thoughts are virtually not coming.
The body feels it is being blown up with air and is a very nice
feeling. During the fourth stage the body feels light and extremely
relaxed and you are virtually not using the wave while there are
171

The New Idealism
no thoughts. The fifth stage is like LIFT-OFF to a new form of
consciousness. Some people see colours. Others experience a
wonderful sensation. This leads to the six stage which is
enlightenment. About 95 per cent of meditators feel they are
asleep but are totally conscious at the same time. And this is the
highest stage of Integral Meditation. If you are interested in a
total physical transformation adopt a strict diet of vegetables,
grains and fruit and walk at least 2 hours a week if possible. Also,
basic yoga postures and breathing correctly should help any
chronic illness. Make sure you supplement vitamin B12 if you
become a vegan vegetarian.