Although many CIA conduit foundations have given contributions to the Council on Foreign Relations, it has never been exposed as a recipient of CIA funds. In fact, the Council appears to serve a much more direct and important function for the CIA. Convincing evidence of this is the series of discussion groups on "Intelligence and Foreign Policy" that the Council hosted in late 1967 and early 1968, to which Vice President David Truman was Columbia's representative. A list of the topics discussed is revealing. The list is as follows: "Intelligence and Foreign Policy: The American Experience;" "Intelligence and Policy Making: The Task Ahead;" "Covert Operations;" "Intelligence Operations and Private American Institutions;" and "U.S. Intelligence Organizations in the Future."

The discussions were led by individuals with extensive knowledge of CIA operations. For example, Richard Bissell (former Deputy Director of Plans for the CIA and architect of the Bay of Pigs invasion) reviewed the activities and functions of CIA agents overseas and discussed why it is better to work through nationals when possible; he also discussed when agents should and should not work through and with the knowledge of the U.S. Ambassador. In addition, he spoke of CIA funding of private organizations and the effect on their programs after the use of foundations as conduits for CIA money were exposed. Other known members of the CIA and other intelligence organizations who participated were Robert Amory, Jr., Allen W. Dulles, McGeorge Bundy and Franklin A. Lindsay.

What follows is an informal record from sources close to the University administration of the topics considered in the "Intelligence Operations and Private American Institutions" discussion group:

Short-run view - Advantages and disadvantages of having the CIA fund a private institution:

Types of organizations and relations:
Private U.S. organizations created or used as fronts - e.g. Western Enterprises in Taiwan;
American Universities - Research; Credibility of American scholars abroad?
placement of individuals in private organizations for cover-corporations;
Major propaganda organizations - e.g. Radio Free Europe;

Reasons for covert methods: To protect relationship with friendly governments or groups;
Protection from reprisals;
Use of friendly governments to fake retaliatory actions;
Avoid destroying activity which would occur if done overtly
Increase effect by not being aligned with U.S. source; Avoid, necessity of legal requirements;
Allow plausible denial when cover is exposed;
Avoid public accountability by Congress and Administration for unpopular activity;
Avoid public commitment of U.S. prestige.

Relationship of CIA and Universities;
Tragedy that closer relations have been largely destroyed;
Some way must be found to reestablish relationship;
Overt means of support for NSA-type activities;
Means of control and termination of operations;
How to sense a shift in public attitudes;
How to develop a clearly American style of operations, not patterned after or British;
How to attract the right people and be aware of public opinion;
Is the CIA becoming too much of a career service?

The importance of the relationship between the intelligence community and Columbia is great. The universities and their personnel serve in an advisory capacity and as a feed-back mechanism for intelligence evaluation. Also, by involving academics in intelligence, the CIA is able to create a favorable disposition towards the secrecy and manipulation which has become essential to many government operations in America. Policy initiative during these sessions more often than not comes from the intelligence community - as is clearly the case in many situations where foreign policy is made.

Integration of a major university like Columbia into the ranks of this elite means not only that the CIA is provided with needed scholarship on international affairs and an academic cover for foreign penetration, but, most important, it thereby has the power to enlist America's own intellectual resources in the barren campaigns of the Cold War.