According to Dean Halford, only 18 of Columbia's federal government contracts were for classified research; the overwhelming majority of government-sponsored projects were "conducted openly, without concealment either as to the nature and substance of the activity or as to its findings and results of whatever kind." Dean Halford did not, however, indicate, the value of the classified contracts; had he done so, it would have indicated that the 18 secret contracts -- constituting only 2% of all federal contracts -- accounted for $13.9 million or one-fourth of all government income. (The classified contracts were distributed as follows: Lamont Geological Labs, $4.4 million; Electronic Research Labs; $4.8 million; and Hudson Labs, $4.7 million.)

Most of the government sponsored, projects, according to Dean Halford, were for undirected, basic research. The classified projects, however, involved directed research, on problems of interest to the Department of Defense. This distribution of federal funds is quite in accord with statements made earlier by President Kirk on the topic of University-government relations. Responding to demands that the University bar access to recruiters from the Central Intelligence Agency, President Kirk on Nov. 21, 1966, told an audience of 500 students that had gathered in Low Library that "it is not desirable, it is not feasible, it is not possible for the University to attempt to make a value judgment about any division of the federal government." To do so, Kirk asserted, would be to jeopardize the University's autonomy and thus its ability to conduct "free discussion" on matters of national concern. After basing his defense of CIA recruiting on the principle of free inquiry and debate, Kirk acknowledged that the University (i.e., the administration and trustees) occasionally made exceptions to this principle when it was "important to the national defense" that Columbia conduct secret research, Kirk did not list the qualifications for such exceptions.

President Kirk's ambiguous statement concerning secret military research is characteristic of the administration's response to student faculty requests for information on the subject. At a faculty smoker, Dean Halford was responsible for at least two major untruths and several more half-truths. According to the official transcript of his speech, published in the Columbia University Newsletter, Dean Halford told his colleagues on the faculty that "There are no government-sponsored projects at Columbia whose existence cannot be disclosed or whose general nature cannot be indicated." It wasn't until Oct. 16, 1967 -- six months later -- that Columbia admitted that the CIA was secretly financing a project on national income in Eastern Europe. In response to a question from the floor, Dean Halford also exclaimed that "Columbia University had no institutional connection with Institute for Defense Analyses." In fact, Columbia had been a member of IDA since 1960. Responding to criticism of these deceptions, Dean Halford later said that "these things are not in the purview of faculty or students." (Columbia Spectator, March 31, 1967.)

Columbia has been conducting underwater acoustical and oceanographic research for the Navy at Hudson Labs since 1951. As part of Project Artemis, scientists at the laboratory are seeking to develop an underwater continental sonar warning system. Hudson Labs also developed special electronic equipment to locate the wreckage of the atomic submarine Thresher, lost in 1963 with 129 men aboard.

Most of the research conducted at. Hudson' Labs is financed by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Last month, the Navy informed Columbia that it would no longer support the work at Hudson. Columbia then announced, on April 9th, that it would be forced to close the Dobbs Ferry facilities by June, 1969 unless new sponsorship could be found for the work performed there. According to Warren Goodell, Jr., the Vice-President for Administration, Columbia is currently studying plans to transfer some of the 300 staff-members at Hudson to other University, divisions.

Lamont Geological Laboratory

Oceanography, the development and use of the ocean and its resources, is being hailed on Wall Street as one of the booming new investment fields. Currently the most dynamic sector in oceanography is the off-shore oil industry (the industry has invested over $6 billion off the U.S. shores and has drilled nearly 9,000 wells). The other major spender in the oceanography field is the Defense Department, the Navy in particular.

Ownership of the sea bottom has never been clearly defined by international. law. Some of the less developed and less powerful nations in the United Nations foreseeing the threat posed by this U.S. military-industrial penetration of the open seas have initiated proposals to prevent arms proliferation in and under the seas. These proposals are being opposed by the Defense Department and the oceanographic sectors of American industry.

Just as U.S. industry and military interests organized to sell the space race to the American public during the last two decades, they are now organizing to sell the race for control of the oceans. In October 1966 Congress passed special legislation to strengthen U.S. capabilities in marine science and technology (National Sea Grant College and Program Act). President Johnson recently appointed a cabinet level Marine Resources Council headed by Hubert Humphrey to oversee the nation's oceanographic operations. One of the main sources of technicians and technology for this new field is the university; and Columbia's Lamont Geological Observatory is among the top three or four university-related oceanographic research centers in the country.

Established in 1949 Lamont Geological Observatory was named for the man who contributed its founding grant, Thomas J. Lamont, late Chairman of the Board of J.P. Morgan & Co. The main 150 acre campus, operated under the Columbia Geology Department, is located on the shores of the Hudson River at Palisades, New York. The Observatory also maintains a station in Bermuda, a geomagnetic field station in southern New Jersey, some labs on drifting ice in the Arctic Ocean and a permanent installation at Punta Arenas, California. Lamont's facilities include four oceanographic research vessels, an IBM-1620 digital computer and the largest collection in the world of deep-sea sediment cores. Its main fields of research include earthquake seismology (read also: nuclear test detection), space physics, marine geophysics, submarine geology and chemical and physical oceanography.

The Observatory's staff of 59 research professionals is headed by Dr. Maurice Ewing. During the four years previous to his joining the Columbia faculty in 1944, Dr. Ewing was a research associate on the National Defense Research Committee at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. He was awarded the Navy's distinguished service medal in 1955.

The Lamont Geological Observatory is, logically enough, primarily financed by those interests which are serviced by its technology and technicians. The heaviest corporate contributors are the oil companies, including Standard Oil (of N.J.), Texaco, Superior, Shell and Continental. But by far, the greatest portion of its financial support -- over 90% according to Dr. Ewing (N.Y. Times, April 11, 1958) -- comes from the government. The National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research are the primary dispensers of this government subsidy. According to Technology Week (June 5, 1967) half of the Navy's '67-'68 $100 million for oceanology research and development was oriented toward anti-submarine warfare. One of Dr. Ewing's main fields of research -- and the subject of his book, The Propagation of Sound in the Ocean -- is particularly relevant to this type of research and development.

The Punta Arenas installation maintained by Lamont is connected with an offshore seismograph on the ocean bottom used for underground nuclear test detection. This project is financed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency through the Office of Naval. Research. According to the Defense Department listing of non-profit institutions receiving military prime contract awards for research, development, test and evaluation work for fiscal year 1967, the Columbia Punta Arenas station and Palisades campus received $90,000 and $510,000 respectively.

As of October 1966 Lamont Geological Observatory had seven classified contracts with the Department of Defense worth $4.4 million (Testimony of Dean Ralph Halford, Columbia's Dean of Graduate Faculties). One final example of the Observatory's financing and function is described in the NY Times of February 14, 1961, two buildings to train personnel for a new research ship the Navy was scheduled to give that year were amortized (for $872,000) by renting the buildings to the Navy.

Atomic Research Facilities

Columbia maintains a number of facilities for research on atomic energy and related subjects. One of the most famous of these, the Columbia Radiation Laboratory (located on the 10th, 11th, and 12th floors of Pupin Hall) was recently designated a National Landmark in recognition of 25 years service to atomic research. The Radiation Lab was established during World War II to conduct research on military programs involving high-frequency radio waves. During the war, the Lab was used to improve military radar systems. After 1945, however, the government authorized the use of the facility for long-range basic research, and several Columbia scientists subsequently received Nobel prized for work performed at the lab. Dr. Charles Townes (now Provost of M.I.T.) received the 1964 Physics Prize for the development at Columbia of the first maser in 1955.

At least one other Columbia facility had received historic recognition: the University's original cyclotron, constructed in 1938 by John R. Dunning (now Dean of the Engineering School). According to the Columbia Research News issue for Spring 1966, this, cyclotron "made possible, on Jan. 25, 1939, the first demonstration in the U.S. of the huge, energy release occurring in nuclear fission -- a critical experiment in the series that led directly to initial formation of the World War II atomic bomb project at Columbia, and eventually to creation of the bomb." This instrument was dismantled in 1966 so, that it could be exhibited in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

Columbia will not miss the 1938 byclotron, for it has just received a $4.4 million grant from the National Science Foundation for the expansion of its powerful synchro-cyclotron at the Nevis Laboratories in Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y. The expansion program will greatly enhance the machine's ability to produce subatomic particles, which are the main research tools of intermediate energy physics. When first constructed in 1950, the Nevis facility was for a time the world's most powerful cyclotron. Since then, the instrument has been used to conduct experiments on the properties and behavior of subatomic particles like pi-mesons and muons.

Columbia's School of Engineering and Applied Science has recently completed installation of a small nuclear reactor in the lower reaches of the Engineering Terrace Building. The facility, technically labeled a TRIGA Mark II reactor, contains safeguards which are intended to shut the machine off automatically before the conditions for a nuclear explosion could develop. Nevertheless, when first proposed, the reactor drew opposition from community residents and some members of the Columbia faculty (including Prof. Seymour Melman of the Engineering School). Although community opposition, acting through the Renewal Council, succeeded in delaying construction of the reactor, it was powerless to halt final activation of the facility.

Columbia scientists who are engaged in experiments which cannot be handled by the Engineering School's small reactor are guaranteed to the $212 million facilities at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Long Island. Columbia University, along with 10 other east coast schools, is a member of Associated Universities, Inc., the consortium that manages the AEC's facilities at Brookhaven.

Associated Agencies

Columbia University operates several research facilities in conjunction with other universities, with the Federal government, and with a private corporation. The Brookhaven National Laboratory, already mentioned, is one of these joint efforts.

Columbia's Interdepartmental Committee on Space Physics and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration's Institute for Space Studies jointly conduct a research program in space physics. The Institute, which occupies facilities in the Interchurch Center at 475 Riverside Drive and in a University-owned building on West 116th Street, is associated with the Goddard Space Center. The program in Space Physics accounts for most of Columbia's $1.5 million contracts with NASA. Prof. Robert Jastrow functions as Director of the Institute and as chairman of the Interdepartmental Committee.

The Watson Laboratory, at 612 West 115th Street, is operated by the International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) in collaboration with the University. It provides extensive facilities for experimental and theoretical research in physics and applied mathematics.. Watson Lab, named for IBM's founder, Thomas J Watson (a former Trustee of Columbia University), is one of several instances of IBM-Columbia association. Grayson Kirk, in addition to his duties as President of Columbia University, serves as a Director of the IBM Corp. Dr. Richard Garwin, a Columbia Physics professor, is director of research at Watson Lab. (Garwin is also a' member of the Jason Division of the Institute for Defense Analyses.)

Columbia University became an institutional member of the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) in 1959. IDA is a defense-oriented "think-tank" which is sponsored by a consortium of twelve universities. Columbia's President Grayson Kirk represents the University on IDA's Board of Trustees, and along with Columbia Trustee William Burden, also serves on the Executive Committee of IDA. This select committee (members must have "Top Secret" security clearance) must approve all IDA projects. Three years ago, the committee named Gen. Maxwell Taylor, head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to replace ex-CIA official Richard Bissell as President of IDA.

Since 1959, there has been a constant interaction between IDA's Arlington, Va. headquarters and Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. On March 30, 1967, IDA's Vice-President and General Manager, Norman L. Christeller, told reporters from the Columbia Daily Spectator that "We consider Columbia to be one of the three or four primary university sponsors of the IDA. President Kirk has always been an active member of our board." Kirk himself has not been honest: on May 5, 1968, Kirk told a nation-wide audience on the CBS program "Face the Nation," that "IDA does not contract with the university." Once again, a Columbia administrator lied rather than acknowledge Columbia's ties to IDA. Columbia has, in fact, held contracts from IDA; in 1964, for instance, the Electrical Engineering Department received a contract from, IDA worth $18,950 for a study of missile-tracking radar (the project was conducted by Herbert Dern of the ERL staff under IDA contract no. 50-13).

Several members of the Columbia faculty are associated with IDA on an individual basis, as consultants or part-time researchers. Three professors, Richard Garwin, Leon Lederman and Henry Foley, are members of MA's "Jason Division," an elite group of University scientists who spend weekends and summers working on secret military projects. According to Mr. Christeller, a "classified research center has been established at Columbia" to accommodate the secret work of the Jason members (Columbia Spectator, March 31, 1967). In addition, the following faculty members have been identified as consultants to IDA: I. I. Rabi, retired University Professor; Bernard O. Koopman, Adrian Professor of Mathematics; Bruce L.R. Smith, an Associate Professor of Government; and Lawrence O'Neill, Director of ERL/ RRI and a Professor of Electrical Engineering.

On April 1, 1968, the Trustees of Columbia University adopted a Measure which is intended to end formal University membership in IDA, while still allowing them to select a representative to the Board of. Trustees of IDA. Columbia's Trustees also passed a resolution which contained an affirmation of "the need for continued effective support of IDA."


Since World War II Columbia has maintained close working relations with the U.S. Navy in a number of areas: Hudson Labs and the Lamont Geological Observatory are both largely supported by the Office of Naval Research. Columbia has no Army Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC), but does offer a Naval ROTC program, administered by the Naval Science Department. The program is limited to the men's undergraduate division, Columbia College.

In order to be commissioned as a Reserve Officer, NROTC candidates must take several six-week summer cruises on Naval vessels as well as complete the regular liberal arts program and courses in Naval Science. Instructors in the Naval Science Dept. are officers of the Naval Reserve who are given commensurate academic positions.

The Columbia College Bulletin for 1966-67 lists the following course-offerings in the field of Naval Science: C1011y: Naval History and Seapower, 1815-1966 ("The contribution of seapower to the political and historical development of the United States ... The rationale of strategic decisions; the organization for national security; the mission of the U.S. Navy in the missile age; selected problems of insurgency and counter-insurgency"); C1021x: Weapons Systems Analysis ("The development of a method which, when applied to a weapons system, allows the student to conduct a functional analysis and gain understanding of the system's principles of operation"); C3032y Naval Operations; C3041x: Naval Engineering; C3042y: Principles and Problems of Leadership ("principles of human management and application of these basic principles to naval situations"); C3531: Evolution of the Art of War; C3532: Basic Strategy and Tactics.

NROTC students who wish to enter the Marine Corps must also take course C3541x: Amphibious Warfare ("The history, theory and practice of amphibious warfare from the Gallipoli campaign to Vietnam").