In a time of turmoil and expansion it is important to maintain a healthy mother country. A well-satisfied domestic population is less likely to question overseas ventures and more willing to take part in their prosecution. Two vital preconditions for a 'healthy', smooth-running, industrialized mother country are skilled labor and social stability. The demands of industry are constantly changing and this requires a constantly reeducated the population. At same time some social conflict is inevitable; but the corporate state thinks it has found the means to regulate its direction and intensity.

National corporations' interest and dependency on the university has a long history. The technical-managerial elite that administers private corporations and the government are all products of the universities, particularly their professional schools. To coordinate the complex flow of modern production requires a high degree of professional training. Without engineers and scientists, innovation and adaptation would come to a standstill. Finally, national corporations are most dependent on a consumer-oriented population. Since profit depends on constant expansion it becomes necessary to train more of the population to increasing consumption patterns.

The chart of Columbia's Top 22 reveals primary relationships to leading national corporations (aside from mass media companies) for five of the rulers and several of the others have secondary interests. The Banks which have financial connections with national corporations and hence an interest in their welfare, are also represented on Columbia's Board of Trustees. Because of their business outlook these men have guaranteed the highest priority for the Engineering, Business and Law schools. Consequently, each of these schools has expanded far out of proportion to the other units of Columbia. They spend the most money, maintain the largest plants, and command the most attention from the administration.

While Business provides skilled managers and Engineering supplies innovators, specialized lawyers are increasingly needed to rationalize the system. Growth and interdependence of American industry has encouraged mergers and oligopoly in order to raise efficiency. The delicate task of bringing corporations together while concealing control is initiated and executed more and more by highly trained. lawyers. Moreover, increasing government regulation has made corporate law ever more intricate.

By turning into a service station for corporate interests, the university has become enmeshed in business. The administration and faculty have found private profit more educative than teaching. Most instructive is the case of Professor John R, Dunning, Dean of the Engineering School. Since 1957 Dunning has lied his pedagogical talents to City Investing Co. (CIC), a, real estate holding operation that has diversified into commercial enterprises specializing in defense contracting. As a director of CIC (along with Columbia Trustees Fletcher and Walker, and Morningside Heights' President, James Felt), Dunning reaped the benefits of properties leased to William Burdens Lockheed Aircraft. Furthermore, Dean Dunning profited when CIC acquired an aircraft defense contractor (Hayes International) that has large subcontracts from Lockheed, and manufactures such military weapons as incendiary bombs and a Defoliation Spray System (designed, to disseminate poisonous chemicals in Viet Nam).

Another interesting case of academic business involved Columbia's role in the Strickman filter. President Grayson Kirk, with authorization the Board of Trustees acting as a public relations executive, made the first public announcement of the filter's discovery. Reliable rumors indicate that some of the Trustees bought large blocks of tobacco company stocks on the correct assumption that the filter announcement would drive the stock prices up.

Columbia Trustee and Philadelphia architect Vincent G. Kling has also benefited from his academic association. Soon after he became a Trustee in 1965, he was awarded the closed bid contract for designing Barnard's new classroom (Kling designed the Penn-Central, building' in Philadelphia for which Percy Uris was the general contractor).

Business relationships also arise from the university's investment program. (See the Real Estate section for details on land holdings.) Though the university has refused to make public its investment portfolio, available information demonstrates a concentration of holdings within corporations represented by the Trustees. For instance, it appears that the University has heavy investments in IBM and Con Edison; the latter represented by Kirk, and the former by Kirk, Wien and Luce. Columbia's Watson Computer Lab is operated for IBM and Con Edison benefits from the University's. land deals and rental policy.

Corporation executives have become increasingly, aware of the need for social controls over potentially disruptive elements, especially those in the ghetto. Since they are not inclined to invest in low-return operations, they have channeled tax-deductible and foundation funds into the creation of pacification teams trained by the University. The School of Social Work turns out personnel whose approach is ostensibly therapeutic. The standard formula is to convince the disadvantaged that their life difficulties stem from inner sickness rather than disruptive social conditions. This approach treats the poor and potentially rebellious as patients. Instead of removing the cause of their discontent -- something that would cost a great deal of money now allocated to overseas priorities -- they pacify through treatment. The origins of this therapeutic social work is charity; the effect is to rob the individual of his dignity by requiring him to adjust to intolerable conditions.

Mass media is another form of pacification. By reaching a vast number of people through a number of sources, it can create an image of the world that is supportive of the system. To distract is to pacify; the mass media transforms reality into symbols that deaden social awareness. The lack of alternatives creates a climate of coercive persuasion.

Columbia has been instrumental in shaping the mass media industry. New York is the industry's capital and Columbia is its favorite university. Eight of the Top 22 are leading figures in major mass communications firms; their influence is mirrored in the size and national status of the Journalism School. The School is well-endowed by the corporations it serves (particularly the New York Times, CBS, Time, and Cowles publications), and in turn shapes its program to satisfy their needs.

Another function of the mass media is the training of people to develop artificial hunger for mass consumption. As consumption habits become ingrained, the home markets expand. Every blatant or subliminal technique is used to convert natural tastes into the unnatural. This growth in consumption creates high turnover of goods and customers work harder to feed their habits, draining potential moneys from those sectors of the population that are already deprived...

The interdependence between the University and mass media corporations is best exemplified by the New York Times' coverage of the April 30th [1968] mass arrests on the Columbia campus. Two leading Times editorial writers (Gelb and Rosenthal) were secretly briefed by the police and prepared their story long before the actual arrests. The news stories of other Times reporters which revealed police brutality were suppressed and the Times published editorials favorable to the administration. This was clearly calculated to project a favorable public image for Columbia. Moreover, in the past, A. M. Rosenthal has offered his services to Kirk when the administration needed to rebuff community leaders that were critical of the proposed gym.